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A primarot spoken Eng ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^V 

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The present work is intended to supply the want of an 
English edition o^ tny Elemeniarhuek des gesprofkmen Englisch, 
published by the Clarendon Press in 1886, which has been 
very successful abroad. The grammar in this primer is , 
simply a translation of that in the Ekmentarbuch with a few I 
additions. The texts here given are, on the other hand, 1 

The object of this book is to give a faithful picture — a 
phonetic photograph — of educated spoken English as dis- 
tinguished from vulgar and provincial English on the one I 
hand, and literary English on the other hand. At the same 1 
time I must disclaim any intention of setting up a standard 1 
of spoken English. All I can do is to record those facts 1 
which are accessible to me— to describe that variety of 
spoken English of which I have a personal knowledge, that 
is, the educated speech of London and the district round 
it — the original home of Standard English both in its spoken 
and literary form. That literary English is the London 
dialect pure and simple has now been proved beyond a 
doubt by the investigations of the German Morsbach in his 
essay Ueber den ursprung dt-r neuengUuhen schrifisprache 
published in 1888, 1 having expressed the same view in the 
'^'ii Sounds. After London 

English had become the official and literary language of the 
whole kingdom, it was natural that the same dialect in its 
spoken fonn should become the general speech of the 
educated classes, and that as centralization increased, it 
should preponderate more and more over the local dialects. 
But the unity of spoken English is still imperfect ; it is still 
liable to be inSuenced by the local dialects — in London itself 
by the Cockney dialect, in Edinburgh by the Lothian Scotch 
dialect, and so on. 

The comparative purity and correctness of the different 1 
varieties of spoken English is popularly estimated by the:! 
degree of approximation to the written language. But 
these comparisons are generally carried out in a one- 
aided and partial spirit. When an Englishman hears the 
distinct r and gh in the Broad Scotch _/ar/(4£r, night, etc., 
he is apt to assume at once that Scotch English is more 
archaic than Southern English ; but if he looks at the 
evidence on the other side, such forms as ah ai oo=all one 
wool will make him more inclined to believe what is the 
truth, namely that standard spoken English is, on the whole, 
quite as archaic, quite as correct and pure as any of its 
dialects— a truth which before the rise of modern philological 
dilettanteism and dialect- sentimentality no one ever thought 
of disputing. 

Still more caution is required in attempting to estimate the 
comparative beauty and ugliness of the different varieties of 
spoken English, Our impressions on this point are so 
entirely the result of association that it is hardly possible to 
argue about them. The Cockney dialect seems very ugly 


to an educated Eiig;liah man or woman because he — and still 
more she— lives in perpetual terror of being taken for s 
Cockney, and a perpetual struggle to preserve that h which 
has now been lost in most of the local dialects of England, 
both North and South. Northern speakers often reproach 
Londoners with 'mincing affectation.' But the London 
pronunciation of the present day, so far from being mincing, 
is characterized by openness and broadness, which are carried 
to an extreme in the Cockney pronunciation of such words 
as father, ask, no. A century ago, when this reproach was 
first levelled against the Cockneys, there was really some 
foundation for it, for at that time the broad a in /alher, ask 
was represented by the thinner vowel in man lengthened, the 
Northern ask and man being at that time pronounced with 
the short sound of the a in father. When the sugar- 
merchants of Liverpool began to ' speak fine," they eagerly 
adopted the thin Cockney a in ask, which many of their 
descendants keep, I believe, to the present day — long after 
this ' mincing ' pronunciation has been discarded in the 
London dialect. 

Another difficulty about setting up a standard of spoken 
English is that It changes from generation to generation, and 
is not absolutely uniform even among speakers of the same 
generation, living in the same place, and having the same social 
standing. Here, again, all I can do is to describe that form 
of the London dialect with which I am sufficiently familiar 
to enable me to deal with it satisfactorily. The only real 
familiarity we can have is with the language we speak our- 
As soon as we go beyond that, and attempt to 


delermine how other people speak — whether by ohservation 
or questioning— we make ourselves liable to fall into the 
grossest blunders. Of course, every self-observer has his 
persona! equation, which he is hound to eliminate cautiously; 
and this I have done to the best of my power. Being partly 
of Scotch parentage — though I have lived most of ray life 
near London^I have a few Scotticisms, such as although 
with sharp /A, which sometimes crop up in rapid speech. 
Again, my pronunciation — like everyone else's — is in some 
cases more archaic, in others more advanced — more slovenly, 
more vulgar — than that of the majority of my contempo- 
raries. When 1 pronounce diphihong with p instead ofy) 
I have an impression that I am in the minority; and when 
I pronotmce either and neither with the diphthong in eye, 
I have an impression that I am in the majority against those 
who pronounce these words with ee. But I have no means 
of proof thai such is the case ; and I know that if there were 
only one speaker in the world who said eefher, he would 
probably assert confidently that this was the only prontmcia- 
tion of the word — or at any rate the only ' correct ' one. 
The fact is that the statements of ordinary educated people 
about their own pronunciation are generally not only value- 
less, but misleading. Thus I know as a fact that most 
educated speakers of Southern English ilisert an r in idea{r) 
of, India(r) office etc. in rapid speech, and I know that this 
habit, so far from dying out, is spreading to the Midlands ; 
and yet ihey all obstinately deny it. The associations of the 
written language, and inability to deal with a phonetic 
i/on, make most jjeople incapable of recognizing a phonetic 


representation of their own pronunciation. When I showed ] 
my Elementarbuch to some English people, all of Northern I 
extraction, they would not believe it represented my own I 
pronunciation ; they said it represented broad Cockney, of I 
which they said there was not a trace in my own pro- f 

I repeat then that this book is nothing but a contribution I 
to our knowledge of spoken English — a knowledge which is ' 
still in its infancy, and can be advanced only by a number of 
other trained observers giving similar descriptions of their 
own pronunciation. It is only on the basis of such in- 
dividual investigations that we can hope to settle what are 
the actual facts of spoken English in Great Britain, America, I 
and Australasia, Till we know how we actually do speak, J 
we cannot deal with the question how we ought to speak, 
and whether it is possible to reform our pronunciation, and j 
take steps to preserve the unity of English speech all < 
the world. 

Anyhow, I hope we shall have no more nonsense about I 
my plain statement of facts being a blow aimed at correct- | 
ness of speech. If my critics would only realize that this J 
book, together with the Elementarbuch, is the only one i 
any language that gives adequate phonetic texts with the 
sentence-stress and intonation marked throughout, they 
would see that it is more profitable for them to discuss 
the plan and tendencies of the book itself than to i 
for not suppressing and distorting facts whi'' 
shock their prejudices. 

LAs regards the 

5 of this be 

contribution to English dialectology. It is further a con- 
tribution to the practical study of English both for natives 
and foreigners. English people will find a phonetic study of 
their own language the best possible preparation for the 
mastery of foreign languages, as well as for the study of 
general grammar and the science of language, including 
metre, the theory of verse and elocution, and literature 
generally. The very simple texts which come first will also 
be found suitable for teaching children lo read phonetically. 

The phonetic notation I have used is nearly the same as 
in the Elementarbucb, with some improvements, such as the 
substitution of d for o, as being easier to write. I have 
extended it to /, which is as easy to write as t!ie ordinary 
dotted t. I have also made the experiment of . substituting 
word- for the stress-division of the Elementarbucb. I am 
still unable to decide which method is preferable. 

In the grammar I have treated phonetics as briefly as 
possible, referring the reader to my Primer of Phonetics. I 
have as a general rule passed over briefly those points whith 
are adequately treated in tbe conventional grammars, giving ^_ 
greater prominence to such totally new subjects as gradatioB^^^| 
sentence-stress, etc. ^^| 

To avoid monotony I have not written all the texts myself, 
but have also given pieces from older writers, modernizing 
and simplifying ihem where necessary. 


NuKTOH, tajanuary, 1S90. ^^^H 


Grammar page 

Sounds I 

Quantity i 

Stress 2 

Intonation > • 3 

Organic Basis 4 

Vowels 4 

Consonants 8 

Sonnd-jmiction ii 

Forms (Accidence) 

Gradation 13 

Inflections of Nouns 16 

Comparison of Adjectives 18 

Numerals 18 

Inflections of Pronouns ao 

Inflections of Verbs ai 


Stress a7 

Intonation 3a 

Nouns 33 

Adjectives 35 

Pronouns 35 

Verbs 37 


09 san 45 

09 muwn ..... - 4^ 
rdn ...» 



09 kauddli :litl boi 

9i aidl boi 

Ci ould tjaepl . 

09 jai) rset 

waild laif 

9 reilwei ncsk99j9n 

9t 09 sij said . 



skeitTi) . 










The foundation of speech-sounds is breath from the lun^, . 

In the formation of voice sounds, such as aa in ' father,' v, 
gt the vocal chords in the throat are brought together so aa 
to vibrate. In ireaiA or voiceless sounds, such as A,/, k, 
they are kept wide apart, so that the breath can pass through 
without hindrance. In jv^isperid sounds they are brought 
closer together, but without vibration, so that the breath 
produces a rustling sound. 

In nasal sounds, such as m, the passage into the nose is 
left open; in all other (non-nasal) sounds it is closed by 
pressing back the uvula or soft palate. 


It is enough to distinguish three degrees of quantity : shori, 
half-long and long. Half-long and long vowels are marked by 
doubling, except t and d, which never occur short. Long 
vowels occur only finally, as in sn ' sir,' and before voice 
consonants, as in haad ' hard ' ; before breath consonants they 
become half-long, as in haat ' heart '. Long vowels only 
occur in strong syllables (see Stress}, in weak (and often 
in medium) syllables they become half-long or even short. 
Compare jw / with -wj dgon ' sir John ',ja -j«, ;Vw ' ^es. ^v ' . 


The quanlilj' of the diphthongs — all of which have ihe stress 
on the first element — follows the same laws ; but in them 
the quantity is distributed about equally over both elements. 
Thus rouz ' rose ' is pronounced almost rno-uuz, with both 
elements half-long, while in rcuj/' roast' the o and « together 
constitute a half-length. 

Every final consonant is lengthened af e a sho strong 

vowel remaining' short tfter a long ou 1 o 5 ph hong : 

mp h =h hA If h final onsona oiced, 

h 1 gth d b d and con onan bad 

b d -^b rfrf w h b h I m hall-long. Short strong 

yll bl ly h d as .5^/^ 'better', wW silly', 

h h g! so f llowed by a weak vowel. 

S ] g p f d h pik it ap ' pick it up ' 

h h n p be he weak vowel and the 

p dgn Ifuhwdor group is drawled, 

the length is thrown on to the weak vowel, as in :wkol > pitii 

' what a pityl' sledii' sieadyl' All consonants are lengthened 

before another voice consonant, as in iiid 'build', pens 

' ■pens '=bii/d,pmaz, compared with M/ 'built', /«« 'pence'. 

Double consonants are only written when the consonant is 

really pronounced double, as in /enna^' pen-knife'. 

We distinguish four degrees of stress or force : weak (-), 
medium (:), strong (■), emphaJic (;). The stress-marks are put 
before the element on which the stress begins, as in :konir>- 
'dikt ' contradict '. 

Strong stress is not marked in monosyllabic words nor 
when ii falls on the first syllable of longer words with the 
other syllables weak, as in vcrl wd ' very well '. The weak 
stress of ' light ' vowels, such as 3, i, is never marked, because 


these vowels only occur in weak syllables. Hence a ' heavy ' 
vowel in a word otherwise made up of light vowels ii 
assumed to have strong stress, unless otherwise marked : 
rimembs ' remember ' = rfmemb), but -?ei haid dim-selvn 
' they hide themselves.' Ifa word has two strong stresses (or 
a strong and an emphatic), both must be marked, as in 
■an-duw ' undo '. Such a word as -plam-pudiy ' plum-pudding ' 
is better written //ow( /arf?y. 

If only one strong (or emphatic) stress is marked or 
implied in a polysyllabic word, any other heavy vowel symbols 
in the word are assumed to have weak or medium stress, 
between which it is often difficult to distinguish ; evrfwka 
'everywhere '^rarz-wAfj, kontrrdikl^ rkonlrrdiki; so also in 
.■w/iol J kontr>;dikf3n ' what a contradiction ! ' 

If a strong stress mark is already implied, the addition 
of (■) is enough to mark emphatic stress instead of (;), as in 
.whoi 3 'piii, rfmemhl 

The stress in every syllable diminishes progressively, so 
that in such a word as kal ' cat ' the / is uttered with less 
force than the k. After a long vowel, as in kaat ' cart ' the 
diminution of stress is still more marked. 


The tones are lar! (~); ruing ('), as in 'who! 'what?'; 
/ailing ('), as in 'ko« ' no \' ; /ailing-rising (") or compound 
rise, as in teik ''ka ' take care !' ; rising-falling or compound 
fall, as in "aw 'Oh!' as an expression of sarcasm. The tone- 
marks are put before the word they modify; if they modify 
a whole sentence, they are put at [he end of it. The greater 
the interval of these tones, the more emphatic their meaning. 
Thus 'ou with a slight rise expresses slight curiosity or 
interest, with a more extensive rise astonishment. 



If no tone-mark is written, a comma or ? implies a rising 
a colon or semicolon a falling tone. 

Organic Basis. 

The general character of English speech depends on the 
following peculiarities of its organic basis : — 

The tongue is broadened and flattened, and drawn back 
from the teeth (which it scarcely ever touches), and the fore 
part of it is hollowed out, which gives a dull sound, especially 
noticeable in /. 

Rounded (labial) sounds, such as w, uw in 'who', are formed 
without any pouting of the lips. 

In unrounded vowels, such as aa, i, the lips have a passive, 
neutral position. In the formation of front vowels such as i, 
e, there is no ' chinking ' or spreading out of the corners of 
the mouth, by which in other languages their sound is made 


In the vowels we distinguish three horizontal positions, or 
degrees of retraction of the tongue ; back, mixed, front, and 
three vertical positions, or degrees of height (raising and 
lowering of the tongue) : high, mid, low. Each of the vowels 
formed by the different combinations of retraction and height 
is either narrow or wide, according as the tongue and uvula 
are tense and convex, or relaxed and flattened. Lastly, all 
these vowels can be rounded by constriction of the mouth- 
opening, high vowels, such as u xnfull, having the narrowest, 
low vowels, such as j in fall, the widest lip-opening, mid 
vowels such as o{u) in tto an intermediate degree of closure. 
This gives 36 primary vowels, of which only some occur in 
English, as shown in the following table : — 



































3 ■■ 
B 3 































1 = 





J = 


In perfectly weak syllables all vowels are modified in the 
direclion of the mid- mixed- wide or mid -mixed- wide-round 
posidon, according as the vowel is non-rounded or rounded. 
In i there is more lowering than retraction, so that this vowel 
is intermediate between i and e. In very rapid speech the 
retraction becomes more marked, so that it is sometimes 
difficult to distinguish i from 3, as in ' possible ' posibl or 
pos>b!, which latter seems to be most usual. In rapid speech 
d is partially or completely unrounded, so that it becomes }, 
thus ' in a day or two ' is pronounced either in 3 dei S :imt' 
or in 3 del 3 -t&w according to the speed of utterance. 
3 itself is often further weakened by being uttered with 
whisper instead of voice, when it comes immediately before 
a strong syllable, especially when it stands beiweejLteo 
stopped consonants, as in sjpiembi ' September ' (first vowel). 
These vowels, which occur only in weak or unstressed syllables, 
are called ' li ght'^ owels. as opposed to the ' heavy ' vowels 
t, u, 0, etc. The most important light vowels are j, i, u, S, 
and the diphthongs formed with them : 31, m, Su. But all the 
heavy vowels have special light forms, thus the two <es in 
' abstract ' have not exactly the same sound, the light vowel 
in the second syllable being an approximation to 3. Such 
light vowels, for which no special sign is provided, may be 
marked by (■), when necessary, as in ab-striEkt=abslrakl. 

The second elements of the diphthongs ai, ei, oi, au, are 
not full (" and u, but rather i, S. In ou the second element 
combines the mid-tongue position of the with the high lip- 
rounding of H, so that the tongue does not move during the 
formation of the diphthong. Su is formed analogously without 
any movement of the tongue, though here the extra rounding 
represented by the u is often slight and doubtful, the whole 
diphthong being much shortened, ij and art are ' conso- 






diphthongs, although in ij the/ is generally not full/ 

in_)wu but nearly i, the first element being lowered nearly to 

i. Inri 

and «J, 

as m/ear, poor, the first elements are 



. The first element of ai is more retracted than *, 


J are n< 

)t pure monophthongs ; they might be 



uith length distributed over both elements, as i 

nr,,,i, I'l 

etc.). ] 


it is often difficult to distinguish between J> ^^H 


bS and b» ' lore '. Before a consonant both 


are levelled under j, as in hd ' laud ', ' lord '. 




e vowels are as follows, all those i 

n weak ^| 

syllables being 

examples of light vowels : 


^^h aa 

(■>) .. 

in kam ' come ', hambag "humbug '. 
„ faaSa ' father ', ' farther '. 


^^H al 

(■*) ., 

„ hai'high-. 


^^H AU 

(■s) „ 

„ hau ' how '. 


^^H * 

(■8) ,. 

„ lebstTEekt ' abstract ', 



(>7) „ 

„ men 'men', insekt 'insect'. 


^^1 ei 

(■7) „ 

„sei'5ay'. , 



(9) „ 

„ks.'care'. J 



(>4) „ 

„ tagetSa ' together '. H 


^^B ^ 

(■4) „ 

„ twailait 'twilight'. ^ 


^^^1 eu 


„ kompaund 'compound'. 



W ., 

„ maama ' murmur '. 


^^^B i 

('<■) : 

„ iHt 'bit'. 


^^B ^ 

(■6) „ 

, „ sij 'see', 'sea', IjaJ^etlk 'aesthetic' 


^^H ie 

(>') .. 

„ hia 'here', 'hear'. 



(.6) .: 

, „ sia ' city. 


^^^K o 

(3") „ 

„ not 'not'. 


^^H 6 

(3») .. 

, „ Sktouba ' October'. 


^^^K oi 

('9) ~ 

, ,, boi 'boy'. 


^^^H ou 

t (>9) ,. 

, ,1 nou 'no', 'know'. J 




^H «u(3>)«: 

!«fol6u' follow'. 

^B (.,) „ . 

„ fDl'fair. 

^H n 

„ ful ■ fuir. 

^m <i 

„ vffiljfl 'value'. 

^H <>w(.8) 

„ fuwl 'fool', djuwlai' July'. 

^H »° 

„ pu3 'poor'. 


When it is necessary to show that a consonant is syllabic 
{has the function of a vowel), this is done by adding (-) or 
whatever stress-mark is required, as in y's/-i 'easily'. In 
m/V;i— also pronounced mj'ulk—' miik ' the / is syllabic. 

By their arliculation consonants are classed as (i) e^en, 
such as r, j; (2) side, such as /; {3) s/op, such as i, d; 
(4) nasal, such as m. By position they are classed as (i) bad, 
such as i, y in ' sing ' ; (3)y>-on/, suchas/in 'you' ; ('i)point, 
such as t,J>; (4) lip, such 3.sp,m; (z) lip-back, such as w; 
(6) lip-ieeth, such as_/: The point consonants are subdivided 
into gum, such as I, I and r— which is formed further back 
than the others — and leeth, such as / in ' thin '. The blade- 
consonant s is formed with the ' blade ' or flattened point of 
the tongue ; if the tongue is retracted from this position, and 
the point raised, we get the blade-point consonanty in ' fish '. 

The aspirate h only occurs before vowels and/ as in huw 
' who ', kjtavdg ' huge ', 

All consonants can be breathed, voiced, and whispered, 
though some consonants do not occur breathed in English. 
Buzzes (voiced hisses) when final begin with voice and end 
in whisper, as in sijs ' sees ' ; if a stop or buzz precedes, the 
final consonant is entirely whispered, as in fijldz 'fields', 
joi/ s/-/irs 'ourselves '. Final g, d, & are whispered after buzzes, 



as in rtisd ' raised ' 

; so also in reidgd ' raged ', where the g is ^^| 

whispered as well ; 

IS the final d. ^H 

The voiceless stops *, /,> are always followed by a 'breath- ^H 

glide ' or slight puff of breath, which is, of course, strongest ^| 

at the beginning 

of a strong syllable. If followed by a ^H 

voiced consonant, 

they devocaUze its first half, as in irai ^^m 

' try ', plijz ' please 

' = trhrai, plhlijz. After non-initial stops, 

as in kill ' battle ' 

there is less de vocalization, and still less 

when the two cm 

isonants belong to different syllables, as 

au/ki ' outlet '. 


Initial voice stops, such as g in gou 'go', have hardly ^^| 

any vocality in the 

' stop itseir, voice being heard mainly m ^^| 

the ' glide ' or transition to the vowel. ^H 

The only consonants whose notation requires special ^^M 

notice are the following : ^^H 


in dgadj 'judge'. ^H 

s „ 

„ Sen ' then ^^H 



H 1 „ 










3 ,, ^^^ 

„ plegs pleasure ^^^^^^^H 

zvA is generally pronounced w. ^^^^^^^M 

^B^The following is 

a table of the English consonants : ^^^^^B 






















'— > 


























c* • 






































ISO UN'D-yUWC TIOM. 1 1 ^^1 

Sound-jimctioii, ^^H 

only occurs before a vowel following it without any ^^| 
pause, as in ki»r Ij is ' here he is ' ; elsewhere — that is before 
a consonant or a pause — it disappears leaving only the 
preceding ?, as kij s hi> 'he is here'. The 9 is completely 
a.b8orbed by a preceding ?j, as in n, nriy ' err ', ' erring ', and ^^H 
almost completely so by a preceding aa, as 'm/aa,faar noei ^^H 
'far', 'far away' (p. 7). After j the 3 is kept finally, but ^^H 
dropt before the r, as in /j?, p)» daun ' pour ', ' pour down ', ^^| 
piriy, p3T aul ' pouring ', ' pour out ', tieing also dropt before ^^^k 
a consonant in the same word (p. 7), as in pjd ' poured '. ^^| 
Short vowel + r occurs only medially, as in spirit ' spirit'. ^^H 
The following are the combinations : — ^^H 

ar : Aarl ' hurry ^^^| 

Iaa(r) : s/aa ' star ', s/aarl ' starry '. ^^H 

aiB(r) : /i«> ' fire ' ,fai3rl ' fiery'. ^^^| 

BUB(r) : flau) ' flower ', ' flour ', flausri ■ flowery '. ^^^| 

eo^r): 33 'err', aarX^ 'ening', ^^^| 

Ir : spirit ' spirit '. ^^^H 

ia(r) : hii ' here', ' hear ', hint^ ' hearing '. ^^^H 

«r: veri'\eiy'. ^^^| 

ela(r) : peii ' payer '. ^ >^^^| 

ibM: E»' air', pwrr 'vary'. V*W J--*-*«-^^H 

Jb ILL ^^H 
er : nareu narrow , ^^ ^^H 

uB(r) : pu3 ' poor ', kjiifrUs ' curious '. / , , . -■ r ^^| 

ous(r) : loui ' lower '. ^^H 

OB, or ; pJ3 ' pour ', pjr}^ ' pouring '. ^^H 

sori'sovvy'. ^^| 

olB(r) : tndgoi) ' enjoyer '. ^^H 

ei} is often made into u, as in briklu 'bricklayer', and nu^ ^^^k 
into 33, as in h) ' low- ' ^^H 


r is frequent after s, as in aafl>, aaftir jI 'after (all)', smt/iri 
' century'. In careless speech it is often added after 
before a vowel in words which are not writ 
iidisr ov ' idea of ', indj»r yfis ' India Office '. 

The n o( sti 'an' is dropt in the same way before 
consonant : w enimi ' an enemy ', s mien ' a i 

The vowels of 3T 'the' and /u 'to' are weakened to 
before a consonant : ^ enimi, 3) man ; lii ijt ' to eat 
' to bed '. 

When three consonants come together in different woi 
the middle one is often dropt, as in 9> has /aim ' tlie last time 
31 doun noa ' I don't know '. /d is often shortened to d 
daun ' sit down ', etc. 

There is sometimes partial assimilation — often together 
with consonant-dropping — as in n kaay gou ' I can't go ', 
-7ViJ/l mi//u ' we shall miss you '. ■ 

er ) 

to »'^H 




Words that occur verj' frequently with weak stress ofleni 
develope a meai form by the side of the original strong one, f 
Thus we have the pairs of strong and weak forms/L^/andyj/, 
?w(r) and 3>r, f 3 and z, j, as 'mi Twhot -/alii duv},whotf)l >i 
duw' ' what shall I do ', 33z noub^di 3v ' there is nobody 
there ' ; :whol is fi >j s hkty !:baul' ' what is it he is talking 
about ? ' 

The weak stage is mainly characterized by the light vi 

', i, a, ^■ 

^.represents a variety of heavy vowels : 

»93: w^(r) = wp>{r)-yftie: 
e : 3>m = 3em ' them '. 
E3: ^r) = 3u{r) ' Iheie'. 

u : yid -^/ui ' should '. 

o : W3Z = wos ' was '. 
It also represents a further weakening of other light vowelsr 
in rapid or very familiar speech, as m p, j»{r)-=j&, ji, theJ 
strong forms of which axejuw,ju> 'you ', ' your', 
■ i represents i, as in T/=i/' it'. It is sometimes a further ^ 


weakening of J/', as in mJ=mJ;\ strong mrj 'me', but i^i'seenwl 
to be the usual weak form of ij. 

u — sometimes iijt^— represents uw, as mjS=Juw 'you'. 

I d represents o and j, as in Sn=m ' on ', S[r)=J3, jt ' or 

■ 31, m, Bu represent ai, au^ ou respectively. 

^1 Further stages of weakening are the dropping of vowds,! 

■ as in z-=.iz, and of consonants, such as h in fzT=his 'his', 
and n in m-=<End ' and.' A in weak forms is kept only at the 
beginning of a sentence ; il; sj im ' he saw him '. 

The strongyuj(r)yu?3 'your', ' yours' generally make their 
n into S, ^ving jS^{r),jd?z. This seems to be partly due to 
the lowering influence of the s, partly to the analogy of the 
weskjor. They are the only words which have light vowels 
in strong- stressed syllables. JM,j}r,j)z may also be heard, 
and for convenience these are written for the strong forms. 

Strong forms, on the contrary, often occur unstressed, 
such as dai (pronoun) in si mu -3al, where it has the sarae__ 
weak stress as the weak 9>/ in si nou Zst il s irtnv ' I know 
that it is true '. 

The following is a list of the most important weak forms 
ranged under the corresponding strong forms. It has not 
been thought necessary to include all the self-evident weaken- 
ings of /■ to f, nu to 6u, etc. Forms marked * occur only 
occasionally, or in special combinations, 
aar ' are ' : ^(r). 

H BB ' US ' : n\ s in kis ' let us '. ^ 

I am 'am': )m,- m. | 

*fflnd'and': ?n before consonants; ?nrf before vowels ; 
often further shortened to n, as in :bred n bat) ' bread and 
butler ', and m, after lip-consonants, as in :kap m s. 




bai 'by'; hi ; *b3. 
bij 'be': bij ; bt 
Wjn ' been ' : bijn ; bin. 
daa ' does ' : diz. 
duw 'do'; 'ds, 'd, 
'BBii'than': Sm. "Til •*> 
tSei aar ' they are': Sa(f). 
tSem 'them': hm; sm. 
tSE8(r) ' iheir ', ' there ' : l^^r). 
B£8(r) iB ' there is ' : 3)a. 

the ' ; 3t before vowels ; Si before consonants. 

I *)8, ft)r'for':/i>(r);/'{r). 
' from ' from ' : fnm. 

haad'had': h>d ; id; d. 

hffiv ' have ' : Juv ; w ; v. 

hiBB ' has ' ; hiz ; 3z ; s, j, the 
the same rules as inflectional s (p. i6] 

hea(r) 'her': hs{r). 

»hy 'he': hij; Ij. 
lilm 'him': Kim; im. 
hiz ' his ' : kis ; iz. 
iH ' is ' : H; e, j, the use of Iz, i 
inflectional i (p. 16). 

J69, j6r ■ your ' : /3{r) / _/>(r). 
juw ' you ':yfi;« ,->,■>. 
k»n 'can': km; in. 
hud ' could': hd. 
mast 'must'; mist; mss. 

,f follows the rules of 


•no#, nor 'nor': KS[r); ta{r). 
not ' not ' r n/ only in verbal forms. 

jv 'of: ov; 3v; j. 
)8, or 'or': S{f); ?(r), 
lam ' some ' ; S3m. 
jotf'such': S3l/. 
Beint 'Saint', Si.': snt before vowels, sn before 

IJud ' should ':_/5(/. 
til 'tm'; /(7,- //. 
•tuw ' to ' : tu before vowels, U before consonants. 
wii 'we': wtj ; wi. 
wU'will': 7l,l. 

wud 'would': w>d ; id; d. 

Inflection of Nouns. 

Besides the uninflected 'common form' (Ajj 'horse'), noui 
have only one case^ — the genitive. The genitive singt 
ends in 

(i) -iB after hisses and buzzes (f, 8 ,-_/; ^) : kisiz^h 
dgidgiz 'George's'. 

(2) -a after the other voice sounds; dciz 'day's' 

(3) -B after the other breath consonants: sfpi 'earth's. 
kats ' cat's'. 

The regular plural is formed in the same way: ^iQ 
'borses', Jeis ' da/s', kah 'cats'. Some words ending in ^ 



md/'take a in the plur., and voice the/andy; baal> 'bath', 
baaSz; laif ' VSe.' , laivz ; waif ' vni^' , waivs. hatis 'house' 
has plur. haumz. 

pent ' penny ' has a regular plur./wjj, and a collective plur. 
pens ' pence ', in composition -pms, as in paundz, /iliyz 3n ' 
pens, sikspsns. New (regular) plurals are formed from these 
last : ■ iuw stkipsnsiz. iygll/jnsn ' Englishman ' has the plur. ^ 
ii(g-iy'die English'; without di the plur. is the same as the 1 
sing.: tuw iygU/nan 'two Englishmen ', So also with ordinary 
names of nations ending in a hiss or buzz, such as/rm/rnm, 

«l/mm; Ifa 

Chinese '. 

The following are wholly 
(i) oks, oksn ' ox ', ' oxen 
(a) l/aild, t/uldrm ' child ' 

(3) /ijp ' sheep ' and -m/i 
changed in the plur. 

(4) A'. /')'^ ' foo' 'i ' feet 
man, men ' man ', ' men ' ; » 
iij/' ' tooth ' ' teeth ' ; wumm 

The regular gen. plur. 

Chinaman' has plui 

h -l/avmjz ' the 

n dgenllmm, are u 

guws, gijs goose , geese ; 
if, maij 'mouse', 'mice'; tvwp, J 
vimm ' woman ', ' women '. 
the same as the gen. sing.; 
such words as iaaj>, haus the gen. plur. is the same as the J 
common form of the plur. ; the irregular plurals add ( 
or s to the plur. form : gijsiz, menz, fjjps. 

Sing, Common, hss laif mxn 

»Gen. hasiz laifs mienz 

Plur. Common, haslz laivz men 

Gen. hoslz iaivz menz. 

Word-groups are often inflected like single words : 3) 
:mrs smi'Ps, :hvijn viklirhz patis ■ ^ "'lfdlzfaa3K_ 

Comparison of Adjeotives. 

the superlativv^^l 

The comparative is formed by adding -^(r), the superlat 
by adding -Jj/: big, big3, bigisl. Many (iissyllabic and nearly 
all longer adjectives are compared by prefixing mjii, mir, and 
mousi : bjuiv/lfi, wj? bjuwtiji, mousi bjtcwfifl. 

The following are irregular : 



W33st ' worst ' 


ffaaS9(r) 'farther' 
1 fa3C3(r) ' further ' 

faaSlst 'farthest' 

faaKst 'furthest' 

ould 'old- 

fould3(r) 'older' 
Idds(r)' eldest' 

ouldist 'oldest' 
eldlst ' eldest ' 

lid' little' 

les ' less ■ 

lijst 'least' 

gud ' good ' 


beta 'better' 

best ' best ' 

mat| ' much 
meni 'many 



moust 'most'. 


Cardinal. Ordinal. 

1 wan 'one' fssst 'first' 

2 tuw ' two ' sek(3)nd ' second ' 

3 jjrij ' three ' Jiaad 'third' 

4 fo3, far ' four ' .. .. fDjj'fourth' 

5 faiv'five' fifjj'fifth' 

6 siks'six' .. .. .. siks{)j) 'sixth' 

7 sevn'seven' sevnfi ' seventh ' 

8 eit ' eight ' eitj) ' eighth ' 

g nain'nine' nainji ' ninth' 


10 ten 'ten' ten)) 'tenth' 

11 Ilevn ' eleven ' .. .. Ilevnji ' eleventh ' 

12 twelv ' twelve ' .. ,, twelQ) 'twelfth' 

13 '{jaa-tij'n ' thirteen ' .. -Jiaatijnf) ' thirteenth' 

14 -fo'tijn ' fourteen ' .. -fa-tijnj) 

15 -fif-tijn ' fifteen ' .. .. -fif-lijnj) 

16 'siks'tijn ' sixteen ' ,, 'siks'tijn}) 

17 ■sevn-tijn ' seventeen'- .. 'sevntijnfi 

18 -ei-tijn 'eighteen' .. .. ■ei'tijnj) 

19 -nain-tijn ' nineteen ' .. 'nain-tijn)) 

20 twentl ' twenty ' .. .. twenOI]) ' twentieth ' 

2 1 twentl wan ' twenty-one ' twenti fasst 

22 twenti tuw'twenty-t^vo' twentl seknd 
30 |)33tl ' thirty ' ,. .. JiaalHJ) 

40 foti ' forty ' fofflt) 

50 (ifti 'fifty' fiftlTf. 

60 siksti 'sixty' sikatHjj 

70 sevntl ' seventy ' ,. .. sevntlij) 

80 eiti' eighty' eitHJi 

90 nainti 'ninety' .. .. naintiijr 

100 ahandrsd'ahundred' ,. handrad)) ' hundredth' 

101 3 handrsd n wan .. ,. handrsd n f^ast 
2O0 tuw bandrsd .. .. tuw handrsdft 

1 .000 9 f;auznd ' a thousand ' })auzn}T ' thousandth ' 

2,000 tuw Jjauznd tuw ]3au«n]j 

100,000 a handrdd Jiauznd .. handrad J)auzn]> 

t, 000,000 3 miljan 'a million' .. miljsnj) ' millionth '. 

In continuous counting the -teen numbers throw the stress 
on the first syllable— ^3J/y'o, etc. (p. 29). 

ttru andfinj shorten and modify their vowels when com- 

Kwilh pcni and pens : lapint, lapms, pripms. 

InflectioDB of Fronoims. 

(a) Personal Pronouns. 

Sing. Nominative 

ai 'I' juw(jii)'j-iju' 


mij (ml) ' me ' juw (jii) 


,ij (wl)'we' juw 05) 


as (ss) 'US' juw(jil) 

Sing. Nm,. 

hij (Ij 

■he' ifit' rijCW'she' 


him (im)' him 'it 'it' haa(r)Mr,a3'h 

Plur.Nom. iSei 'they' 

Obi. Sem (Sam, am) ' them.' 

The fonns in parentheses are the weak ones, which s 
more fully described under Gradation {p. 13). 
The emphatic and reflexive form are : 
Sing. maiSelf ' myself ' ja'self ' yourself 

Plur. aus'selvz ' ourselves ' ja'selvz ' yourselves ' 
Sing, himself 'himself itself ' itself haa-aelf ' herself *5| 

Plur. Samselvz ' themselves '. 

To which most be added the indefinite wstisel/'oa^ 
which is only reflexive. 

When used emphatically these compounds take strong 
stress on the second element ; when used reflexively both 
elements have weak stress, except when the reflexive pronoun 

is emphati 
wofl Xm;setf. 

hSj wo/l U imtdf ; htj wo/l tm-self si 0. 

(li) Inkrrogalive Pronouns. 
Alasc. ^ Fern. Netil. 

huw ' who ' whot ' \vl 

huw, huwm ' whom ' whot. 

: aj 



21 ' 

{c) Possessive Pronouns. 

Conjoint : mai ' my ', au3(r) ' our ' ; psir) ' your ' ; kit \ 
' his ', Us ' its ', h}3{r) ' her ', fcr (??r) ' their ' ; ^uwz ' whose 

Absolute: foaia 'mine', au?s 'ours'; _/jj2 'yours'; fit's \ 
' his ', I'/s ' its ' Asgz ' hers ', fes ' theirs ' ; Auwz ' whose '. 


(d) Demonslraiive Pronouns. 
Sing. Sis ' this ' Sffit ' that ' 
Plur. Sijz' these' Souz 'those'. 

(e) Indefinite Pronouns. 
'one', adAf) 'other' and their compounds, togelhe I 
with mihodl ' anybody ', have a genitive or possessive in -a : 
wonz, dS}z, enihodiz. wans, a3>s are also plurals. 

/JKU) ' few ' takes the indef. article : }/juw buks, i/Jaw j(b) 1 
S3 lehz. So also with meni ' many ' in 3 greii :meni (6u6s). " 
j/ ' all ' takes the def. article between itself and its noun : 
3j iaim, j/ 3^ men. 

Infleotions of Verbs. 

(A) Consonantal Class. 




Sing. I kal 'call' 

kold 'called' 

„ 2 kal 


„ 3 kolz- calls' 


Plur. kal 


Imperative ko!. 

Infinitive kal. 

Present Participle {Ger 

und) k^lii] ' calling 

Pret. Participle kald. 

aft CRAMAfAR. 

The subjunctive differs from the indicative only in having 
its 3 sing, unin fleeted — k>I. 

The unmodified form k^l is called the ' common form '. 
The addition of the inflectional z follows the same rales 

as w-ith the nouns : sijzis, fi/iz, ijis, s/t^s ' seizes,' ' fishes ', 

' calls ', ' stops '. sei ' say ' has vowel-change : see ' says '. 
The preterite ending appears as J 

(i) -Wafter/andrf: rfi/aj'/irf ' delighted ', noaTrf ' nodded ', J 
(a) -rf after the otiier voice sounds: //«(/' played ", joVif 

' saved ', dra-gd ' dragged '. 
(3) -/ after the other breath consonants: /u/V' pushed', 

lulil ' looked '. After voice consonants in i^jnl ' burned ', 

tfuv//, Uml, spoilt. 

The following change final d into /; hend, bent ; bitd, bill 
' build'; Imd, lent; send, sent ; spend, spent. 

The following add rf or / with vowel-change : 

d: hi)[r) 'hear', hxid. sei 'say', wrf. w/, souM; 1 


t: krijp 'creep', krepi ; drijm 'dream', drtntt ; fijl 'feel^ 

fdt; kijp 'keep', kept; lijv 'leave', le_fl ; mijn 'mean'i 

ment ; slijp 'sleep', slept; swijp 'sweep', swept. &»''buy'J 

b^t ; luws ' lose ', hst. 

The following drop their final consonant before the pre- ] 
tc rite-ending, with vowel-change before /: 

d; meik ' make ', meid. 

t : brip, bnt ' brought ' ; l>iyk, pit. sijk ' seek ', s3t ; lijt/ 1 
' leach ', tH. ka//' catch ', kjt. 
w cask ' ask ' only drops the k : aasl. 


(B) Vocalic Clctss. 

i class differs from the former only in the formatioa 1 
of the pret, and pret. partic. It includes only a limited I 
number of verbs. 

H (a) Pret. part, in -n. 

(u) Different vowels in pret. and pret. partic. 

giv ' give ', geiv, givn. 

draiv ' drive ', drouv, drivn ; raid, roud, ridn ; rail ' write ', 
rout, ritn ; raiz, rouz, rizn. 

flat ' fly ',fluw ' flew ',floun ' flown '. 

ijl ' eat ', et ' ate ', ijtn. sij ' see ', w ' saw ', si/n ; feik 1 
' shake ',/uk ' shook ',/eikn ; tetk, tuk, teikn. 

blou ' blow ', bluw ' blew ', bloun ; grou, gruw, groun ; 
' know ', njuiv, noun ; l>rou, pruui, proun. dri ' draw ', dria 

(^) Same vowels in pret. andprel. partic. 

lai 'lie', lei 'lay', lein 'lain'. )iaid, hid, hidn ; bail, hit,\ 

frijz 'iKeze',/rouz,/rouzn; spijk 'speak', spouk, spoukn; 
sHjl ' steal ', stoul, slouin ; wijv ' weave ', wouv, wouvn 
'break', brouk, irouin. t/uwz 'choose', t/ous, t/ouzn 

tred ' tread ', trod, Irodn, 

bf>(r) 'bear', b}), b^r, bm; swv(r), jtcjj, sjvjr, 
tt>{r), l3>, lir, im; wiiiy), WJ>, WJr, wm. 

ij^'beat', 'bijt, bij'ln. 

I (6) Pre/, partic. wi/fioul 

(a) Different vffvoeh in pret. and prel. partic. 

bigin, bfgisn, b(gcm ; dripk, drapk, dra^k ; ri^, rtcy, rap 
siy, say, say ; siyk, sayk, sayk ; spriy, spray, spray 


ham ' come', fe/m, iam. 

(8) Same vowels in prel. and prel. partic. 


dig, dag ; kliy, klay ; spin, span ; sHk ' stick ', slak ; 

hay ; win, wan. hay, hay. siraik, slrak. 

baind 'bind', haund 'bound'; fatnd, found; grait 
ground; waind, wound. 

/ai'/' light', /;■/. 

AowWhold', held, blijd 'bleed', hhd ; fijd ' feed ',/«?, ■ 
lijd ' lead ', led ; mijt ' meet ', met; rijd ' read ', red ' read '. 

sit, sat; spit, spat. 

weik ' wake ' wouk. So also aweik ' awake 

get, got. fain ' shine ',ybB 'shone', fiaut 'shoot', fa. 
fail ' fight ',f>t ' fought '. 

With consonant*dropping : stand ' stand ', 

The following keep the same vowel in the ci 
pret., and pret. partic. i 

spred ' spread '. 

bsast ' burst '. hsit ' hurt '. hit. kaast ' cast ' 
kjst ' cost '. put ' put '. fat ' shut '. set. 

Some have a rf-pret., and a pret. partic. in -n 

fou ' show ', foud, foun. sou ' sow ', soud, 
sweld, sTvouln. gou ' go ', went, gm, gon ' gone 
of two different verbs. 

^F Tl 


(C) Defective Verbs. 

These verbs have only pres. and pret., and, as they take | 
no inflectional s, they make no distinction between indicative \ 
and subjunctive; they have no infinitive or participle; mast I 
and it have no pret. 

All these verbs — asalso the Anomalous Verbs (see under D) 
—have negative forms in -nl, often with vowel-change and 
consonant dropping'. Weak forms are in parentheses. 

mei ' may ', meini ; mail, maitnl. 

wil ' wiir{/,' ail, juwl SLz.^wounl ; wud 'would' ()d ; a 
jwmd, hyd,/ijd, ii^d, wijd, 3eid), wudnt. 
l/^/'ahair {/)l; ai/il,juwpl fLz) faani ; fud {/jd)/udnt. 
■ mast ' must ' (mpst, m^s), masnt. 

kan ' can ' {tm), kaant ; kud (hd), kudnt. 

3l ' ought ', 3/nt. 

dt}{f) 'dare' and nijd 'need' agree with these verbs i 
taking no s in the 3 sing, pres.; they hardly occur except I 
in the negative forms of the pres. ; htj dtmt, hij nijdnl. dl}{r) I 
in the sense of ' challenge ' is regular: MJ duz im t> dam U. 

(D) Anomalous Ytrhs. 
(i) bij 'be'.' 

I Indicative. Suhjuncliiii 

Pres. Sing, i asm (m ; aim) ; eint bij 

2 aar (ar ; jaa, jar) ; eint bij 

3 iz (z, s ; hijz, Jijz, its) ; iznt bij. 

Plur. aar (ar; wisr, jar a:c.,BE3r); eint bij. 

' Written forms: am, an, is ; it-ai, ■mere ; AtVng ■, ttti 




^H Prtl. Sing. 

I woz (w«), 

woznt waar (war), waant ^^| 

2 waar {war}, 

wasnt W33r (war), wsant ^^k 

3 woz (W3Z). 

woznt waar (war), waant-^H 


waar (war), 

waant waar (war), waant ^H 

^H Imp. 

r. bij. 

/n/n. bij. ^1 

^^^B Pres. Partic. bijicj. 

/'(-f/. /'or/(V. bijn (bin). ^| 

{2) hBBT ' have "> ^H 

^^H Pres. Sing. 

I hcev (av, v ; 

aiv), h^evnt ^H 

2 hffiv {av, V ; 

juwv), h^vnt ^1 

3 hKz {az, z, 

s ; hijz, Jijz, its), hseznL ^^H 



: wtjv, juwv, tSeiv), hEevnC. ^^H 

^^H Prei. Sing. 

I bffid (ad, d : 

\ aid), hGednt ^H 

2 hffid (ad, d 

; juwd), hxdnt ^H 

3 hsed (ad, d 

; hijd, Jijd, itad), bxdnt. ^H 


hsed (3d, d; 

; wijd, juwd, &id), basdnt. ^H 


hKV (hav). 

Infin. h^v (hay). ^H 

^^1 Pres. Part. 


P/-i;A Partic. had (had). ^H 

(3)duw'do'.' 1 




I duw, dount 

did, didnt ■ 

I duw, dount 

did, didnt ^H 

^^^1 3 daz, daznt 

did, didnt. ^^k 


duw, dount 

did, didnt. ^1 

^H /»i;>^. 


Infin. duw. H 

^^H PfAT. /'ar/i'iT. duwii). 

Prd. Partic. dan. ^| 

Written fonns: 

&II, had. having. ^H 

WHclea fonni : 

IJKJ, i/k/, iking, dun*. ^^H 

r The general logical principle which governs stress in 
compounds is that even stress {'a-a) separates, uneven stress ^^..^ij 
{generally -aa, less frequently a-a) combines the ideas expressed aiJtii 
in the compound. 

Accordingly in the combination noun+noun even stress is 
employed when the first element has the function of a simple 
attributive and could be represented by an adjective, as in the 
following examples : 

iou windou ; rok soil, slijl pen ; plam pudiij. gaadn wsl, 
ijvniy slaa. man kuk. hedweiU. 

The most important exceptions are the names of natural 
objects, which lake the stress -aa in order to show that the 
two words together express a single idea ; gouldfif; babfii 
apllrij ; sansloun. Hence the distinction between bla:k laid 
and blakb»d. Note that compounds with striji have the ■aa 
stress, as in ohfidslriji, haistrijt, whilst names formed with 
roud, shvi3, etc., have even stress : ois/id road, paak leifti 
hanma skwtt. 

If the composition expresses a causal relation of any kind, 
an action or a phenomenon, the 'aa stress is emQlovcd". 

reiniou. tshtBiSusmmk. siijmbout. fiauipot. mJKWzikmaash. 
jvsiiiflish^m. bukbainih. s^^hmik. 

In the combination adj. (adv.) + adj. even stress is usual : y 
gud luki^y haad botld, Iweniijaiv. 

Even stress occurs even in inseparable compounds, as in 
'an-duw, 'mts-dgadg, ■p?rlijn, etc., and in other words where the . 
inseparable element has a strongly marked meaning. Even 
stress occurs even in simple words of more than one syllable, 
especially in interjections, such as 'hal-lou, 'braavou, and in 
foreign names, such as •bsi-Un, -l/avnifz. 

When an even-stressed compound (or polysyllable) is used 
attributively before a noun, it takes the -aa stress: igudneitfid 
felSu (but hij z gud neil/id) ; haadboild egz ; pntijn men ; 
hndn wul. Compare also 3 sevn ?:klok dim with wij dain it 
sevn iklok. 

The stress a-a occurs especially in combinations of nouns 
with ov and (Bttd: 

biU[v)-fi3, meEm\^)drw?ild : kapmsn^, naifttpk. 

So also in combinations of titles with names, as in :mist3 
smip, :mts robalsn, :faam) hjuwz. Also in exclamations, as in 
■gud fflJniy, or when a railway porter calls out bt<sk-(h)ijp (but 
blakhijp stei/m). 

) Stnlence-slress. 

Sentence-stress has a variety of functions ; the most 
portant types are the following : 

(i) The emphatic stress. The general principle of 
tence-stress is to stress the logically prominent words— those 
which are most indispensable for expressing the sense. In 
such a sentence as si :gol wel the first word is understood 
/rom the context, a/id the second is a mere connecting word, 



To'the stress necessarily falls on wel by what may be called 
negative emphasis ; but in luk /uu ;wel it -am there i; 
creased stress on wel which gives it the meaning of ' very 
wet'; this is positive emphasis, or emphasis proper. Al 
words that express new ideas are more or less emphatic 
while words that express ideas already familiar or that can 
be taken for granted are unemphatic : 3 dgnmm ;krim t» 
landtn . . . Ss •.dg^)m?n left :land?n, m .went is livspuwl. 

{2) The inteneive stress, thrown on such words as veri, etc., 
even when they are not logically prominent ; si ;kwai( sgrij 
wiSJii. juw I keel/ jo ;dep w kould. 

(3) The contraating stress : di taunmaus 3n Ss kantrimq^. .- jj-^ 
pntijn', ptijn', fiftijn^ (in coimting; but when isolated, ^~-'-'' 
pi3-ti]n, etc., as in the answer to the question :hau ould 3J&''). ^ ' — - 

{4) The modiftTng stress : Si s)p s ratind ; Us not ;kwait 
.Taund, bit 3 :litlflatnd. Mj z not ig:z^ktll jh iyglifmnt ; htj x ^_ 
3 ;welfnim. ^^| 

(5) The grouping stress : /il wij smouk 3 ;paip ti-.gets'. n ^^| 
kaay -get ;rid av Im. n nevp syj'u In ? dres ;kout biifn. Here ^^ 
paiptpgcd), etc, are made into a kind of compound by throwmg 

the stress on to the first element, just as m gudnei't/»d JilSu, etc.; 
compare the even stress m/sl wlj smouk ? paip'' ; H kaag , 
-gel 3V)ci; n nevi siju in 3 dres kmt. 

(6) The distributed stress. There are some formal con- 
necting words, such as ' be ' used as a copula, which have no I 
meaning in themselves, and therefore are incapable of logical 1 
empliasis. Hence a strong stress thrown on such words is I 
felt as equivalent to emphasizing the whole s 
iwhot ;aaju dtnmy'' ' what are you doing 1 ' 

In the combination of adjectives (both attributive and pre- \ 
dicative) with nouns, and of adverbs of marked meaning with I 
other words, even stress is the rule : 3 big blak tfog ; W s Ko.aA^fl 



taitn h gou -jtt ; >i m kwaif redl ; It rtin% haad. This is " 
especially the case in negative combinations : )i J>ipk not 
(compare «' pi'^k sou) ; H kaay gim (compare >i i^n duw it 

But if a noim acts as object to a verb with which it is 
intimately connected, so that a kind, of compound is formed, 
the noun takes the stronger stress : /.' :ran 3 rets ; ti :spijk il 
n> :eniwan. 

If three strong-stressed words come together, the stress of 
the middle one is often reduced, especially if they are mono- 
syllabic : compare plam pudiy with t^gllf :plam pudiy ; fain 
mihSts -mlh/aiv :minils t3 ten. 

This is especially the case in rapid speech, which is less 
favorable to even stress than slow speech. If two even- 
stressed syllables come together at the end of a sentence, the 
tendency is to throw the stress forward in rapid speech, so 
that such a word as 'tfavnijz tends to :tfarnijz. 

Logically subordinate words generally have weak stress, 
such as the articles, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, and many 
pronouns and particles. (For the accompanying sound- 
changes see p. 13). 

Nouns and verbs— and sometimes adjectives^of sub- 
ordinate meaning are treated in the same way, nouns such 
as ^ly, kaind, sidt, paat, verbs such as karo, get, meik, gou : di 
fisst pig si sj; .-samPty i{v) dat hind; m 3i :steit n< veipt j 
sam -paats n iyglmd ; ti -hav 9i pleg) ; ti :get bmk ; ti •meik 

Many nouns and verbs lose their stress when enclitic : :aa 
ja ;gouty houm :dgon ? jes (s)). spm bred plijz I :jn h dokttr 
31 sr.pouz P^ It s leit isnl tli'^ 

Under emphatic, contrasting, etc. stress almost any weak 
word can receive strong stress. Even the definite article may 



.ve strong stress in such a sentence as fe/ j :'Si} :Jnng tt ' 
duw ! In this way doubkts are often formed with special 
divergences of meaning and function : 

h(av=^' must'; -i4(Pi'=' cause ', 'let'; A^ auxiliary verb. 
j&uj I hmv ts -hffVJS hi) :kat. 

The weak forms of the auxiliaries occur only before the i 
chief verb ; compare n /3I gou with n piyk li -/ai ; and in ' 
the case of bij before the predicate : compare hij z s fuml 
with rjihot ) /liwl ij IS. Isolated (absolute) auxiliaries often 
have strong stress, especially iz after demonstrative and 1 
interrogative words: :kuw iz ij f^ ; si wandi Twhar 1) iz. 
Also in answers and similar statements : iz ij redi? n ikspikt ' 
ij iz ; mil ij duw U P ii doun :nou -whe3)r ij wit not. Com- 
pare with the last : si doun :nou -wkeSsr ij I diew ?/ 6 not. 

wfaot adjective, mihoi (w/wt) noun: wAo/ taim iz it^ ; 
ru)hot s h taim /". 

aam with strong stress is a quantitative word : wiS sant 
difiklii ; zam .-pijpl pipk sSu. In the partitive meaning of 'a 
little ', French de, it is weakened to sim : s)m w^ln ; w(m) »tw , 
bred I 

inafhas weak stress when it follows its noun ; otherwise it 
has strong stress : gud i-nafj bred l-naf but ina/bred, inaf \ 
>(v) Si^ ! 

tStW in its full meaning occurs both with strong and weak 
stress; darijizl; ri s^ im Sis jeslsdi. The weak 5>r occurs ' 
only in the combination Sir iz, etc., where it ceases to express 
locality : 3) z napiy I) dtmi. 

when interrogative; -when relative: n fal sij tm -when y \ 
:kamz bak, bsl pi doun :nou when ij z kami^. 




Of ihe two simple tones, the riaing (and the level) is int) 
rogaiive or expectant (suspensive), the falling affirmative or 

Hence asserting and commanding sentences have tfae 
falling tone, as in n m redf 'I am ready', iam hif' 'come 

Direct questions, begun with a verb, have the rising lone : 
is ij rtdP ' is he ready V ; d Juw nou tf Ij z iapiiy' ' do you 
know if he is comiog?'. But questions which are begun 
with an interrogative word have the falling tone, because they 
can be regarded as commands : .-wiol s 33 mali^ ' what is the 
matter ?' ; P uand} ivhi j s kamiy^ ' I wonder when he is 
coming', 'io al o d ju e questions : -aaj'u iami^ S nof 
' are you com ng o no ? ; dsz Ij Hv in landin' or in S» 
htntrt^ 'does he 1 e n London or in the country?'. If a 
Benience beginn ng h an nterrogative word is repeated, it 
takes ihe rising tone, and the interrogative word takes the 
emphatic stress : compare :}utvi} i& i/' ' who is he ? ' with y^uw 
ft rj' ? yAuw dldja sei ij WOE'. 

Statements and commands are often uttered with rising 
tone, not only to characterize them as questionable and un- 
certain, but also in order to soften down a command, a 
refiisal, a contradiction, an objection, etc. : fz it /am' 'is it 
fine ? ',jes'. il s prilifain' ' yes, it ia pretty fine ' (compare _/'m\ 
it :luks :kwail selld^ ' yea, it looks quite settled ') ; s>m jny> ttj' 
some more tea? ', nov J>ceyk jU' ' no thank you', jifrend s 
Jeir ' your friend is late ' ; il s not Icit' ; it s ounii/aiv' ' it is 
not late : it is only five'. The rising tone often serves only 
■to give a character of cheerfulness or geniality to the con- 

SVm'AX: /iTOi/ArS. 33. 

"versation : we!', gud hai' ; houp if sij j& }:gm suwn' ' well, 
good-bye ; hope lo see you again soon '. 

If, on the contrary, an interrogative sentence is uttered with 
a falling instead of its normal rising lone, it expresses 
mand, impatience, etc. r ;wil ju daw ss jS-louId^ 'will you 
do as jou are told I ' ;aa ju redt'' ' are you ready f ' In 
such cases the auxihary verb generally takes emphatic 

In the compound tones the second element determines the 
general meaning of the whole tone, and the first element only 
modifies it : the compound rise expresses doubt of 
implied statement, expresses caution, warning, contrasl 
while the compound fall hints at a doubt and disposes of it 
by a dogmatic assertion, and so expresses obstinacy, sarcasm, 
contempt, etc 

ii-i^ 'ii3 ' take care I ' "yo'' Ji/oun/ /rat W ; ''juw -mei' ' I 
will not try it ; you may '. 3j dim wpz vert gtu^, woz nt J/* 
' the dinner was very good, was not it J' 3p "wain unz ia^ 
' the wine was bad '. 

"ai km duw tf ' I can do it ". yum ' you ! ' ri sxpouz 
:3l iS spobdgiiz'' 'I suppose I ought to apologize'. 3i f»d 
'■piyk sSu 'I should think sol' :/a:l wi -hi£V laim' ' ^aa^ 
have lime ? ' ^ou -J€S ' oh yes I ' 

Grammatical gender in English is almost exclusiveljr^ 
marked by the pronouns referring lo nouns, such as hij, \ 
hiz, etc. 

As a general rule noims denoting male beings are masculine. 


34 GRAMMAR. ■ 

those denoting female beings are fiminint, all others being 

Aa regards the gender of nouns denoting living beings it is 
to he noted that Ifaild ' child ' is sometimes neuter. Names 
of animals are generally neuter, but often also masc. or fem. 
without regard to the ses of the individual animal. Thusrfqf, 
hn'\iQt%e.',fif'^^',hniirl 'canary' are generally masc, 
while katt ' cat ', At^ ' hare ', pwrst ' parrot ' are generally 
feminine. The greater the interest taken in the animal the 
more the personal genders are employed. 

Names of things are often personified, fip 'ship', bout 
' boat ', en^lti ' engine ' are fern., the names of smaller objects 
are often masc., such as wo//' ' watch ', pai'p ' pipe ', but only 
in lively speech. It is to be observed that only artificial objects 
are personified ; the names of natural objects which cannot 
be directly employed as tools etc., and of abstract ideas, are 
only referred to as ;'/, such as san ' sun ', muwn ' moon ', siai 
' slcy ', stj ' sea ', i^gbnd ' England ', karidg ' courage ', jni>»j 
' science '. 
I Cases. 

The common form corresponds to the nominative, accusa- 
tive and dative cases in such languages as German : Sal man 
geiv mn hraS»r m oring 'that man gave my brother an 
orange '. 

The common form has a peculiar adjectival use : jSw 
Wild Hi :piyk 3ijz 'luw l/uldrm wsr igswklli d) seijn ei'dg ' you 
{=one) would not (hink these two children were exactly the 
same age'; what kah fal si peirtl jo dit- 'what colour shall 1 
paint your door ? ' It s nou :juws nokltf ' it 'is no use knocking 
(at the door) '. 

The genitive is often used ellipticaily, especially after 



preposition, where the idea of ' house ', etc. is to be supplied : 
?i m slopip it m» apklz ' I am stopping: at my uncle's '. 


Many collective nouns, especially names of fishes and 
birds, are unchanged in the plural : ii kwi/fif ' to catch lish '. 

So also some names of measures, etc. after numerals, 
especially when such a gronp is used attributively: /uw daen 
' two dozen ' ; ) Im rpaund tiout ' a. ten pound note '. 

if an adjective or adjectival word or word-group stands 
alone without direct reference lo a noun, it is followed by a 
weak wan ' one ', which serves as a prop-word, and is in- 
flected like a noun : giv mij > buk^ — m inl(})risf!y ■ 
' give me a book— an interesting one ' ; iuw :dasn peai _ 
:stamps, mi 3 dazn riapms htipni -wans ' two dozen peimy J 
stamps and a dozen twopence halfpenny ones '. 

The superlative is generally used instead of the comparative! 
in comparing two objects : ii?r 3 iuw rmtds^ ; n 
:whil/ls 3>/3tist 'here are two roads; I wonder which is the -J 
shortest '. 

When such groups as dis :haind w, dcet :sJi w are joine^.l 
to a noun in the plur., Sis and Sai are also put in the plur,: 
>i dounl :!aik 3ijs .-taind n mplz sSu uiel 3Z Soui wij - 
ieslidi ' I do not like these kind of apples so well as those n 
had yesterday '. 


The oblique case of the personal pronouns correspond toM 
the accus. and dat. of such languages as German : grv it it 
' give it him ! ' 


The nom. at is only used in immediate agreement with a 
verb ; when used absolutely, mij is substituted for it by llie 
formal analogy of hij, wij, /ij, which are used absolutely as 
well as dependently : U s hij, it s mtj ' it is he ', 'it is me ' ; 
Atae z Jf/ ' who is there f ' wy. 

The indefinite pronoun (French on) is ^nerally expressed 
by j'uw : Si rail ba^k w p rivt s on j3 rait said -whenjH 
I UlfEnd itiidjofeis lu Its maup w jo bwk tit tis sjs ' the right 
I bank of a river is on your right side when you stand with 
your face to its mouth, and your back lo its source '. Less 
frequently by wan : tt rimaitidz -wan >v .tvan fu :mist3 jpikwih 
sdveni/iz ' it reminds one of one of Mr. Pickwick's adventures '. 
Occasionally by wij : :when beibiz laaf, wij nou -Si) plijzd, gn 
aiihen -Zei krai, wij nou -dur in i bad tempi -3 iStt ;sampi^ z 
roy wi Sim ' when babies laugh, we know they are pleased, 
and when they cry, we know they are in a bad temper, or 
that something is wrong with them'. 3a' is used in -Sei set 
' they say '. 

Singular indefinite pronouns, such as eniwati, evrUodi, 
huwevi, are referred to with 3ei to avoid the necessity of dis- 
tinguishing between h/jand/ij : ifeniwan his, teJSim nlbij 
hak in haaftn am ' if anyone calls, tell them I will be back 
in half an hour '. 

In seme phrases the simple personal pronoun is used 
reflexively — mat instead of m^iself: lim ;gouiy U :luk ibaut 
mi 3 :Utl ' I am going to look about me a little '. 

In such combinations as av main the possessive pronoun 
is used instead of the obi. case of the personal pronoun : hij z 
ifrend id m»in ' he is a friend of mine '. 

A relative pronoun in the function of an accusative is 

regularly dropped : ;J33 Sa man li wont ' you are the man I 

I want/ '; ?i s sambig sbaut im n dounl laik ' there is some- 



thing about him I do not like '. A nominatival relative is also ^^| 

occasionally dropped : huui z :^at 

d'^«/ r(£7^ ' who is that ^H 




The conjugation 

of the verbs is 

effected partly by inflec- 

tion, panly with auxiliaries. The 

following paradigm gives 

a general view of 

these forms ar 

id their relations to one 1 






^^L Present 



^^H dtjiniU Pres. 

aim sijli, 

dim bijlij sijn H 



waz ^^H 

^^B de/. Pre/. 

3i W.Z sijiij 

»i waz bijli) sijn ^H 

^^H Perfect 

aiv sijn 

b!jn H 

^H de/.Pfrf. 

3iv bijn sijii) 

aiv bljn bljii] sijn ^^H 

^^H Pluperfect 

aid sijn 

aid bijn sijn ^^H 

^H def Plup. 

did btjn sijlg 

did bijn bljTr) sijn ^^H 

^^B Future 

3i JI sij 

ai p bl sijn ^H 

^^1 def. 

3i \\ bl sijTi) 

di Jl bl bijli] sijn ^H 

^^H Ful. Pret. 

3i Jad sij 

aj Jad bl siJQ ^^k 

^^H def. Ful. Pret. 

3i J3d b! sijii) 

ai Jad bl bTjIri sijn ^H 

^^K Fut.Perf. 


di n dv bljn sijn ^^H 

^^B dtf.Fut.Perf. 

3i Jl 3v bljn sijlrj si p av bijn bIjTi) sijn ^H 




^^H Prcs. 

.1 J.d Sij 

3i /3d bl Sijn ^H 

^M defPres. 

3i ;ad bl sijii) 

9i |3d bl bijiij sijn ^H 

^m Perf 

ai Jad av sijn 

3i Jad 3V bijn sijn H 

^H d<fPerf 

^" ""■■•**■ 


sij (2 pers.) 

def. Pres. 

O bi siJD 

t9 b! bijlij sijn 

lu 3v bijn sijn 

tu 3v bijn bljii) sijn 

-hfevii) bijn sijn 
'hsevlrj bijn bljb) sija I 

Some of tbe longer forms — especially the definite tens 
of the passive — ^seldom or never occur in speech. 

For the subjunctive mood see p. 43. 

The simple forms of the finite verb — pres., pret., and in 
— have special emphatic and interrogative forms 1 
pounded with duw ' do ' : 



Pres. 31 sij 

91 ;duw si 

Prel. 3i S3 

3i ;did sij 

Imperf. sij 

;duw sij 

The remaining emphatic forms are made simply by putting 
an emphatic stress on the auxiliary (of course in its strong 
form) ; the interrogative forms by transposing the pronoun 
and the auxiliary. As all the interrogative forms can also 
be made emphatic, we have in all eight forms. It will 


SY^^•AX: VERBS. 39fl 

be enough to give those of the indef. pres. and fut. as 

examples : 

Affirm, unetnph. si sij ai Jl sij 

Affirm, empk. ai 'duw sij ai ;Jasl sij 

Neg. unemph. si dount sij ai Jaant sij 

Nig. emph. ai ;douiit sij ai ;Jaanl sij 

Aff. inlerr. unemph. dQw ai sij jl ai sij 

Aff. interr. tmph. ;duw ai sij jjiel ai sij 

Neg. interr, unemph. dount ai sij Jaant ai sij 

Neg. inlerr. emph. ;dount ai sij ;Jaant ai sij 

In the Fut. and Cond, the first pera. only is formed i 
Jill, the others being formed with wil: 

Sing. I ai Jl stj ai Jad sij 

a jiiw 1 sij juw d sij 

3 hlj 1 (JijI, Ttl) sij hij d (Jljd, liad) sij 
Plur. I wTj Jl sij wTj Jad sij 

i jiiw 1 sij jiiw d sij 

3 -Sei 1 sij -tSei d sij 

This is the normal scheme, but it is subject to the followingH 
exceptions : 

(a) In direct questions /al is used instead of wH in the 
and pers. : jitw I bX di»r >i sspouz ' you will be theie, 1 
suppose', but fl j& bl 3ti' ' shall you be daere? '. In enclitic 
questions, however, a preceding wud is repeated : juw I hi 
dl3 ru'omil jii' ' you will be ihcre, will you not ? ' ; jiiw d pitjk 
sou .-wud nl jV ' you would think so, would you not ? ' 

(i) After ty, an-les and similar conjunctions all persons of 
the conditional arc formed wilhyW: n wi/tj d kam ' I wish . 
he would come', but :if )j />d kam wh)il si m aut^ aasl^ 


tm t3 will ' if he should come while I am out, ask him to 

(c) Such combinations asj'uzv tnd ai, wij prij, wij il 'you 
and I, we three, we all' take wil instead oi/iet: wtj fl get 
-dlifsisi ' we shall get there first ', but pi ikspeki :juw «i ai »l 
get -3i)/>.'sl ; wij prij 4 get -di^ foist. 

(d) wil oz/al can always be used to express the ideas of 
will or necessity in addition to that of pure futurity : sil kam 
3z suwn pz PI kiEti ' I will come as soon as I can ' ; jiiw/l sij 
tvhol 3i m :g0uiy li dttw ' you shall see what I am going to 
do ! ' The emphatic fi ,-wil duw i! expresses obstinacy, the 
emphatic «' ;/(£lduw ;/ expresses determination. 

D<finite and Indefinite Tern 

This important distinction is most clearly seen in the pi 
While the def. pres, is strictly limited lo what 
going on at the moment of speaking, the indef. pres. inciu< 
past, present, and future, showing that an action or pheno-"' 
menon is habitual or recurrent, or that a statement is of 
general application and holds good for all periods : hij z 
raifit/ J kii implies therefore ' he is writing a letter at this 
moment', whilst ^y raZ/j 3 lets almost excludes the idea of the 
actual present, and suggests some such complement as ' every 
day', 'now and then ', to express the habit or repelition of 
the act of writing. Compare also whisr s jH gouiy'- ' where 
are you going ? ' with hij gouz Id dgsimmi wans 3 jii ' he goes 
lo Germany once a year '. 

But there are many verbs which generally occur only in the 
indefinite tenses. This is especially the case with verbs which 
express feelings, physical and mental perceptions, etc., such 
asy^I, Jaik, J/ipk : n :/ijl il ' I feel ill ' ; iij laiks bijiy hit ' he 



likes being here ' ; n pi^k sou ' I think so'. But as soon as 
the idea of volition or action becomes prominent, the definite 
tenses are employed : compare it hMis ' it hurts ' with hij z 
h3My im ' he is hurling him ' ; hiJ daz nt sij it ' he does not 
see it ' with Aif z sijiy 3» sails ' he is seeing the sights ' ; « 
:hi}r P noiz ' I hear a noise ' with htj 3 khrtg hhifiz ' he is 
hearing lectures '. 

The distinction between the definite and indef. pret. is 
different. In the pres. the def. tense is absolute, the indef. 
relative; but in the pret. the indef 31 roul > lets jesbdi '1 
wrote a letter yesterday ' is absolute, whilst the def si wis 
raifiy 3 kl3Jest>di requires some such complement as ^when 
he came ', lo show that the action espressed by w)z railiy 
has already occurred or continues during the action expressed 
by rwhen ij knm. In such examples as wlj u»r ikspekliyjH 
jesbdf' ; what :did nt ju kam'' ' we were expecting you yester- 
day; why did not yon comef the complementary indef. 
pret. is taken from the following sentence. The more 
absolutely the def pret. is used, the more the idea of duration 
becomes prominent, as in n wsz k:>f}y si mait lo^ ' I was 
coughing all night long ', which is almost synonymous with 
«' kj/i )l mait loy ; wpa kijly however always implies an 
indef pret. to be supplied in thought (such ' so that I could 
nol sleep '), which k^ft is entirely absolute. 

In the def perf and plup, the idea of duration is still more 
prominent : rwhot n' jH dan'' ' what have you done ? ' means 
really ' what have you completed ' ; .-wfio/ivjH btjn dinvt^ :^l 
:dei^ ' what have you been doing all day ? ' on the contrary 
almost implies the idea of non-completion. There is the 
same distinction between 3i v j/^t ^bntt it ' I have thought 
about it ' and »' v btjn pipkiy ibsul il. 

The def, fut.wyVi^riHiffy is quite analogous lattis.'is^'^'^'t^'s,. 

Perfed. ^^^k 

The perf. expresses a past occurrence whose consequence^^l 
affect the immediate present : H v :kam is sijjH ' I have come 
to see you ' {and am still here) ; li :kem I) sij ju on the con- 
trary implies that the speaker went away again ; si v hst mii 
wol/'l have lost my watch ', but 3i bst mH wolf jested}, pn 
faund It y-gert ' I lost my watch yesterday, and found it again '. 

The use of the plup. is quite analogous. 

Occasionally the perf, of intransitive verbs is formed with 
iz instead of iaz : /s /j'gon' ' is he gone ? ' In such cases the 
partic, has almost the function of an adjective. 

Future. ^^| 

If an occurrence is clearly shown to be future by the context 
the pres. is used instead of the fut. and the perf. instead of 
the perf. fut. in dependent sentences : if ju duw it, il I blj 
}getul iz wil ' if you do it, it will be against his will ' ; weii til 
n V fini/l m?i Uta ' yi^W till I have finished my letter'. The 
fiit. perf. only occurs in independent sentences : ii/lfvfini/i 
nui ktf hi Ss taimjo redi ' I shall have finished my letter by 
the time you are ready '. The simple pres. (or perf.) is used 
in independent sentences also in some cases where the sense 
of futurity is clear from the context : Aif staalsfi 3> kmdmm 
timoTou ' he starts for the Continent to-morrow.' 

The fut. pres. has the same form as the conditional : 
ri njiau :hau it id tim aul ' 1 knew how it would turn out '. 

The immediately impending (' on the point of . , ') is 
expressed by the definite tenses olbij gouijf: Us :gouJpt>rdn 
is going to rain ', it w^z -gouiy ti nin, ete. 

"/ ?ngmip, etc. by itself, like n m kamly ' I am coming ', 


fans the meaning of an ordinary future ; n m :gou1p l> d) 
^i>t> t3:nail ' 1 am going to the theatre to-night ' ; wim z Ij 
:Aamirf beak fr^m meriki'' 'when is he coming back from 

I America f ' 

I Subjutulive, ■ 

The Bubj, hardly ever occurs except in combinations of 

w)3 ' were ' with if, and in expressions of wish formed with 

w»i : nf it wipQsihl ' if it were possible ' ; «' wi/ij w) gon ' I 

wish he were gone '. 

The pres. subj. only occurs in a few formal fossilized expres- 
sions of wish, such as god .-sriv 3i kwijn ' God save the 

r Queen I ', sou bij il -Sen ' so be it then ! ', _ 

■ Condilional. ^H 

The conditional is used in hypothetical sentences : :if ij 
njmi) U, hij d Id mij a.baul il ' if he knew it, he would tell 
me about il ' ; :i/ ij d noun il, hij d >v iould mlj i-.baut it 

^'if he had known it, he would have told me about it'. 

I Also in sentences of wish: si wif tj d kam ' I wish he would 

~ come '. In chief sentences it expresses a modest wish or a 
request : it fid laik i) .goufr » wA ' I should like to go for 
a walk ' ; >if)d latk i :glaas 3v wit) ' I should like a glass of 
water '. 

I iz b sij. 

i This periphrasis serves chiefly to express necessity 
possibility : nvhen im n U :kam sgeiC- ' when am I to come 
again ? ' ; doun/ f»gct j3 l> &I 3i>r igzaklH ?t faiv ' do not 
forget you are to be there exactly at five'; Aij e not I) 
bi faund ;mlwhi} ' he is not to be found anywhere '. In 
hypothetical sentences it expresses improbability; :i/u>iiwi 


U mis 3t irein, zl 3d it raa'3»r ^hcsd ' if we w 
train, it would be rather awkward '. 

L Infinilive. 

I The infinitive is generally accompanied by tit (' supine ').d 
juw I hifv l3 duw it 'you will have to do it ' ; ?iwiint i? ;; 
houm 'I want to go home'. The simple inf. only occurs 
after a few verbs, such as the defeclive _/tf/, etc., let, sfj,/ijl 
and others that express physical or menial perceptions: lei 
im gou ' let him go ' ; j; sj im :goa aul ' I saw him go out '. 

The supine is used in a passive sense in some formal 
phrases : Ss s i haus it :lei in 3is sirijt ' there is a house to . 
let in this street'. U 

Participles and Gerund, ^ 

The pres, part. Is sometimes used in a passive sense : ti z 
an aansi .-wetiit/ ' there is an answer waiting '. 

The pres. part, serves as a gerund, that is, a form inter- 
mediate between verb and abstract noun, which combines 
the syntactical peculiarities of both parts of speech, as in the 
following examples : 3» z nm :gtlJy rid w im ' there is no 
getting rid of him ' ; «' Timemhi siji^ im ' I remember seeing 
him ' ; li :haw nt 3s :phg»r sp nouip im ' I have not the pleasure 
of knowing him ' ; iij iftsis/id Sn nm slopiy dt nail ' he in- 
sisted on my stopping the night '. 

Ba Ban sez : 

mai neim z -san. ai m veri brait, 

si raiz In Si ijst ; an :when ai .-raiz, It s dei. 

91 luk in at jo windou wTS msi brait, gouldn ai, an tel jS 
:when ft s taim ta -get ap; and ai tsei ' -slagad, -get 'ap ' ; ^ 
dount Jain fs jii td dai In bed an slijp, bat ai Jain fa jii ta -get' 
ap an waak \ an rijd ', an :wolt abaut \ 

ai m a :greit trsevl-a t ai Urievl oi Suva Sa :skai ; ai neva 
stop, and ai m neva taiad. 

ai V a "kraun on mai :hed *, a kraun av brait reiz *, and ai 
send aut niai ;reiz 'evrlwlita. ai ;j'ain 6n Sa trijz, an Sa hauziz, 
an Ba wala ; and evrtjilij ;luks spaakllg an bjuwtlfl -when ai 

ai :giv jii lait ; and ai :giv jii hijt*, far ai :meik evr1|)Iq warn, 
ai ;nieik Sa 'fnnvt raipn, and ai ;nieik 5a 'kan raipn. :if ai 
did nt Jain 6n 3a fijidz an gaadnz, najili] ad grou. 

ai m vert :hai ap in Sa skai S haia San al Sa trijz '; haia 
San Sa klaudz \ haia San -evrljjlq : ai m a greit -wei c 
jif ai wa ta -kam niara t jii, ai Jad skatj jii ta deji' 
Jad baan -ap Sa graas*. far ai m ol meid av hot, glotilg' 

ai y :l»j,n In Sa skai a lot) taim ' — loijga San 'ciifwan k: 
rimemba ; bat ai v not :groun ouid :jet. 

laia ^^H 


46 Sa miiwn. 

samtaimz si teik -Df mai kraun ov brait rciz, an rjep -ap 
mai hed In )>in silva klaudz ; an Sen jii kan luk at ml ; bat 
:when Bar 3 nou tklaudz, and ai :/ain wi5 o\ mai ;braitnls a 
. nuwn, jfl 'kaant :luk at mP, far ai Jad d^zl jor aiz an :meik 
ja blaind. SI ijgl z Si ounli ilmjl/a Sat kan :luk at mij :Sen : 1 
Si ijgl wl5 Iz stroi), piasli) ai kan alwlz ;luk at mij. 

:when ai m goulij ta raiz in Sa manlij ta :nneik it dei, Sa 
laaks :flai ap In Sa skai ta mijt ml', an sit] swij'tll In St ta ; 
Ba kok krouz laud ta tel eyrlbodl ai m kamb) ; bat 81 aulz an 
Sa btets :flai awei :when -Sei si] mi\ an haid Sain-selvz Tn 
ould walz an holou trijz ; an 5a laianz an taigaz :gou Inta -Ses 
denz an keivz an slijp -Star al Sa dei. 

ai ijain !n ol ;pleislz : ai ijainin iqgland, and In fraans, and 
In dgaamani, and o\ ouva Si aaji. 

ai m Sa :raous(t) bjuwtlfl an gbrias :krijtj"a Sat kan bi aijn 
In Sa houl waald. 

S9 muwn. 

Sa muvn sez : 

mai neim z 'muwn; ai Jain ta :giv jii kit at naif, -when 
Sa san z set. 

ai ra verl bjuwtlfl, an whait laik silva. 

jiiw kan luk at mij when'eva jG laik*, far ai m not sou brait 
az la dfezl jor aiz', and ai neva skatj" ju. ai m maild an 
dgentl. ai :let ijvn Sa :lill ■glouwaamz :Jain; an Sta kwait 
daak bai dei. 

Sa staaz :Jain -ol raund ml, bat ai m blgar an braita Ban 
eni a Sam ; and ai :luk laik s big paal a:mai) smal, spaaktli) 

■553 kauadll :litl boi. 47 

:vihen j6r aBlijp, si Jain firQw Sa kaatnz wiS msi dsenti 
reiz ; and ^i sei ' slijp on ; ai wount distaab jii.' 

Sa nailiqgeil siijz ta mlj^, an /Ij :sir|z beta San al 5l -afla 
:baadz :put tage^a. Jlj :sits In a fonbuj, an :sii]z miloiidjasll 
al mail loijS rwhail tSa djuw rlaiz 6n tSa graas, an evriliTi] z 
kwaiaC an sailant al raund. 

rein :kamz fram Sa klaudz, I 

Ink at Souz bliek klaudz I hati faast -Sei :mu\\'v aJoi] ! | 
nau -Sei v hidn Se san. -Sei v ikavad It ap dgast az jii kavar 
-ap jo feis -when jii :]>to\i a hpeijkatjlf ouvar It. Sa z a litl 
bit av bluw skai stil. nau Sa z nou :bluw :skai atal : Tt s al 
blffik wT5 Sa klaudz. It s verl daak\ bik nait. 

Tt 1 rein :suwn. -nau It s bl:ginlq t3 rein, ;whot big drops ! J 
Sa daks a -.verl glasd *, bat Ss litl baadz a not :gliEd : -Sei :gou I 
an Jelta Sam-selvz -anda Sa bauz a Sa trijz. 

nau Sa :rein z ouva. tt waz *ounli a Jaua. nau Sa flauai I 
:smel swijt', an Sa san Jainz\ an Sa litl baadz sii) a:gen', and 1 
It S not s5u bot az it ;woz biifar it reind. 

■ 89 kaasdll diU boL 

Ba waz wans a :UtI boiS hii waz a greit kauad. hij wasl 
a:freid av :olm6ust evrijilr). hlj waz afreid a Sa tuw kidz', , 
nseni an bill*, iwhen -Sei :keim an ;put -Sta nouziz ]jriiw Sa 
peiligz in Sa jaad : hij waz afreid ta pul biliz biad. ;whoi a 
sill :Iid boi Ij woz I whot waz Iz neim' f nou', ai Jaan :tel 
Iz neim', far ai m a'Jeimd av Jm, J 


48 -Si aidi boi. 

wer, Ij W3Z veri -malj Kfreid av dogz ;tuw ; hij alwlz kraid 
if Ij haad a :dog baak S an ;rEen awei an tuk :hoiild av Iz 
maSsz eiprsn laik a beiH. :whot a sill :feI6u Ij wpz I fa 
dogz dount hsst jiJ :nou : -iSta 'fond sv :litl boiz', an :laik ta 
plei wl Sam. did jii eva :sij a dog ijt ap a :liU botf nou^, 
neva', ai m ijua. 

wel ' — sou St3 sill :litl boi waz iwokli] bai Imself :wan :dei, 
and a priti blsek dog :keim aut av a haus, an :sed ' ;bau wau ' ; 
an keim lu Im \ an :wpntld la plei wfiS Im ; bal Sa :liU boi 
:rEen swei. 5a dog :rten aaftar !m, an baakt lauda ' bau wau ' ; - 
bat Ij ounlt iment ta sei ' :gud manlg ', hau djfl duw ' ? ' bat 
tSa :litl boi waz terabli fraiind \ an rasn awei az faast az Ij - 
kud \ wffiaut ;lukli] bifar Im ; and Ij tambld Intu a madl dilj"', 
an Ssr ij :Iei krailg at Sa botam a Sa ditj"\ far Ij kudnt -get 

and ai rlall bilijv Ij d av lein -Star ol dei, bat Sa dog waz 
sou gud'neit/ad ^at Ij went ta Sa haus -whsa tSa Utl :boi livd 
on paapas ta tel Sam whtar Ij woz. sou :when ij :keim ta Ss 
haus, hij skrEeift at Sa daa', an :sed ' :bau wau'; far Ij kudnt 
spijk -enl pleina. sou -Sel oupnd Sa dar an ;sed ' :who da 
jfi wont S jii btek dog W : wy dount nou jQ.' :Sen Sa dog 
went ta rself Sa mcen, an puld Im bai Sa kout', an puld at Im - 
ill Ij brat Im ta Sa ditj ; an Sa dog an rself tageSa ;got Sa -.lill 
boi aut a Sa ditJ ; bat Ij waz al ouva mad, an kwait wet ; an. 

Si aidl boi. ^^H 

Sa waz wans a :iitl boi ; hij woz nt a -big :boi', far if Tj d 
bljn a big ;boi, ai sapouz ij d av bljn wMza ; hij waz ounll a 
lid :boi\ nou haia San :3is teibP, and Iz faaSaran matSa sent ^^ 
Im ta skuwl, ^^H 

■Si ould tj'^pl. 49 I 

It W3Z 3 veri :pleznt manli) : 63 san /on, an SSs basdz ski) 
in tSs trijz. ;naii fi!s :litl boi did nt 'kta ;matj far Iz buks \ 
far Tj waz a siC :litl boi \ az ai tould jQ ; and Ij [)0t Tj d raatSa 
plei San :gou ta skuw!. 

and ij :so a -bij -flaiiq 3:baut, faast ta -wan :flau3, an t!en 
tii anatSa. sou ij :sed ' priti bij, :wil jfi :kam an plei wIS mlj ? ' 
bac Ss bij :sed ' ^nou, ai mas nt bl aidl : ai mas :gou an 
:gEeSa han'i.' 

:5en Ij :mel a dog \ and Ij :sed ' dog, ;wil jii plei wItS mlj ? ' 
bat Sa dog :sed ' 'nou, ai mas nt bi aidl : aim :gouii) ta J 
:kxtj a hca fa mai maastaz dina ; ei mas :meik heist ; 

ka;i; it; 

:5en Sa :litl boi paast bai a 'heirik *, and tj :sd a baad puliq ! 
sam hei :aut a 3a heirik ', and Ij ;sed ' baad, ;wil jii :kam an 
plei wiS mi] ? ' bat Sa baad ised ' 'nou, ai mas nt bij aidl : 
ai mas -get sam hei ta :bil<i mai nest wiS \ an sam raos "; 
sam wul.' sou Sa baad :fluw awei. 

:5en Sa :litl Ixii :so a -has \ an :sed ' hoa, :wil jii plei wiS J 
nilj ? ' bat Sa has :sed ' "nou, ai mas nt bij aidl : ai mas 
:gou an plau \ oa Sa wount bij -enl kan ta :meik bred 6v.' 

Ben Sa :litl boi sed tii lm-se!f ' whot' I iz -noubadi aid 
Sen :litl -boiz :mas nt bij :aidl aiSa.' s6u 5j :meid heist an 
Lwent ta skuwl \ an bant Iz lesnz verl wel \ an Sa maaata :sed J 
ij waz a veri :gud boi. 

t9 ould tjsepl. 

It s msa San twenti :jiaz agou \ an :jet ai 
:if it wa 'jestadi ' — Sa brail dsuwn monli) ' 
:boiz, ned tansil an hierl web, :saet at S; 
skuwlrum, wlj ;basd Sa skuwlrum - 

50 «I ould tfjepl. 

maastsr an Si atSa :bDiz hsed nt ;kam in -jet. si rtmeml 
hau Ss sanjain -.keim strijmit) in ouvd -Sast ould desk, hau 
.-haskt abaut It woz S an steind wiS ir}kl an nou wanda : fa 
men! dgenaTei/anz av boiz ad :kat -Star Inijalz on it \ an 
dsemldgd it aut av pjua misljlf. ai rimemba liau Sa t/iafl lail 
:meid as :luk ap \ an hau brait, an blijw, an trKnspEarant 
6a skai lukt J^riiw ?i oupn windou ; and :hau Sa soij a Sa 
baadz an Sa frej kanlri oudaz Lkeim pDrlij in fram 5a fijldz birfaa 
5a haus ; and ai rimemba hau ned tansti :laand 5z siroij, radi 
fijtjaz tadz as an ;sed ' ou :whot a dei SSIs ad :bij fa Si ould 
l/aepl ! ■ 

at t5a menjan a 61 ould tjEcpl hserl ;web an ai dgampl ap 
an ikskleimd ' whot a dei 1 ;if wlj war ounll Sta I ' 

wij :J)rij boiz wa pjuwplz av 5a vikar av heizfad ; hEil web 
waz iz san. Sa war alla-geSar a:baut haafadazn boiz in Sa 
skuwl. -Sei \va 5a sanz av iz :mou9t weltaduw parijanaz. 
6a waaiSI vika hsed nt a ilaadg iijkam; and Ij divoutid Sa 
botil av Iz iliga taim til as, ned tansti waz 6a san av a faamar 
iiw ;!ivd tuw :mailz af; an 61 ould i/fepl waz a;baut faiv 
mailz on Si aSa said av ;SEa faam. ned waz a:baut twelv*, 
bat Ij waz sou strogli bill, and :hEed satf stroij bould fijtjaz 
Sat Ij :lukt sam :jiaz oulda. hlz bodi an maind wa boufj fill 
av raf slrerif) an he!J)i enadsi. hij pleid iz :paat mffinfl-i at 
5a dinateibl az ;wel az In Sa pleigraund. hlj waz a dsartij, 
abstreparas, ouvabtarlr) ;boi. hij waz gud at ol autdaa geimz 
n spats ^ — ranlg, dgampiij, Ujplg wi 5a poul, resUri, swiralij' — 
an :went in fa Sam wiS a vigar an inj>juwztezm Sat :fild as ol 
wl6 wanda. an Ij -hred a kas, houmli, konfidenjal kaind av 
elakwans al abaut dogz, ksets, neblts, pidsanjuwtiq, baadz- 
nestii], an wijzlhantli) wiS Iz raf :grei teria -sniKp. Bamtaimz 
Ij :juws(t) ta tel as av iz ekspl'difanz Jiruw 6a wudz an fijldz 
raund Iz houm', and hau ij ikspbd Sa soliiari bruks an 


- pondz i an :8en Ij'd diskraib Sa kjuarias ffinlm|z an baadz Ij 
:s3* — ot3z\ bEeJSozS poulksets^ hoks', djeiz', an :nou end 
3v aSa streing- Jmjifaz. ol Sis ij dl.'skraibd sou vivldjl an In 
-satj a faeslneittq staiJ.Sat Tj bi;keim Sa greit grikl a Sa skuwl 
on al Sa wandaz a Sa kar.t-l ; an wlj lisnd tu Im dl aua hedz 
wa taand \ and aua maind/ ■wa, fild wiS o\ :s3t8 av skijmz av 
adventjo. - .-■ -'- 

wel, hij d take ouvar an ouvaf.'a^en av tSis ould tjjepl lil 
wlj wa msed ta gou -Sta. it waz a rnwtoi}'°l/ffipl ; It :lei In a 
dijp an soKtrl VEelt. aikodlij ta him it mbz ijxo ;pleis ta viztt 
bai nait: hlj wud nt gou -Sta bai nait fatSa'^w.aald, Ij :sed. 

. it waz hantid bai a va:raiiff av mlstiarias gonsta'f" an.bisaidz, 

. :sevral 'maadaz ad bljn kamilld -Sta, and a?a ihofaz: '.bat 
bai deilait and In sama, a:k3dlr| ta hiz diskripjan, it waz. 9 
paaflkt -pseradais fa boiz. Sa wa -poulktets In 5a ruwJnz ; 

I an -sam a Sa rEarlst kaindz av baadz :bilt In Si ould mpsi 
trijz. Sa wa tigeiz rnests, raineks n staallijz :nesls ; Sa feSa- 
pouk :bih iz bjnwllfl :litl kavad nests -Sta; Sa war ijvn 
■kukiiwz :egz ta bl faund -Sia ; an Id Sa bft a tB ould tjiepl 
Sa wa :lots av aulz, 

waz Sar evar a :boi In Sa waald liw kad hiar av satj" a rpleis 
wlS:aut loi]ig ta bl of tu It ? wlj d lisnd s6u afii ta nedz 
akaunt av its wandaz, Sat nau, at Sa :mia menjan 6v It, wlj 
djampt ap an :sed ' whot a pleis I an whot weSa I ned 1 ned 1 
whot Jal wlj duw * ?' ' 'a! nou ', sld ned ; hlj dsampt ap on 
Si opazlt :said a Sa desk, an lent ouva -tadz as, an :lukt :verl 
Impatnt ; :Sen Ij :wenl on ' ' It s fain ta:dei, an It 1 bl fain 
lamoroa tuw^ — Sa weSar al bl setld fa sam taim. aua Jepad 
;sez sou ', an hij nouz. an tamorou z -Jiaazd!, an wij -hasv a 
haaf hoil(B. wij v ounll :got tu aask lijv fa juw ta -katn an 
sij mlj, an Sa Jiigz dan.' wlj boujj ;sed 'jes', jes', -Sfet ad 
bl gbrias; bat -wil mlsta web -.let a?, ?,iiM'"V -r^i^ -.^^^'■^^ 

■51 ould Ij'zep!. 


■CKt t3 mij : aj I mxnldg It. ai 1 sei mai faatJar an nuiSi 
wont juw la :gou an sij Sam far a houl d^.' — an :sou -Sei 
duw^, fa -Sei V ofn sed sou; and ai ■neC i^sta web :wount 
riijuwz as -Sen. -wij 1 duw It, mai bolzt/wi^ 1 duw it t ' and 
at Sa :niia {jpt av It wlj dramd on-.S^ rdesk wlS aua fists, an 
daanst abaut til wij nokt 6uv3'Sa,_fimz bihaind as ', sou Sat 
Se noiz wouk :ap sua re vreiid ^rfse pta^ .Ip Ik ijzT tjsa ^, an wij 
haad Sa dsr oupn, and'-bSad'haadll :taini ta ;put Sa famz :ap 
a:gen, si daun, en'^luk'siafias bi:far Ij keim in. 

ai nijd nt sei-haij-wij did aua lesnz -Sst :dei. Sa houl 
taim aua li?9?'*w3 ful av ould tJEeplz, aula ;nests, kukSwz 
:egz and afii'lregaz a Sa seim kaind ; and if wT; iskeipt bijTi) 
noupH ^'panijt. It waz ouni! btikoz mlsia web waz awei at 3 
TB^iij'.b fjuwnaral moust a Sa ;taim. az :s«wn az :skuwl waz 
ouv5, tansil ;keim ap til Im w!S Iz hast In iz hsend, an :^ast 
lijv for as in Sa :neim av iz ptarants, rmista web :Iukt :raaS3 
greiv, an :sijmd ta bi ()ii)k!i) Sa -msetar ouva. wij :felt 
Krifas*, and aua haats :siEr|k lou. bat :when !j d aast ned 
a :fjuw palikjalaz, Ij lukt ap, an :sed ' we!, Sa weSa z saatnli 
:verl fain S and ai riali jjiijk it I :duw jii gud; sou ai wount :sei 
nou,if midltanz ptarants hfev nt-enl abdgekjan; bat maindjii 
kijp aut av mistjif , an kam bask In gud taina,' av :kas wij 
promist moust libra!!', an left Sa skuwl verl kwaiatll, til wijd 
wakt sam wei, an :got on Si aSa :said av a baan ; an :Sen wij 
let Df Sa stijm bai daansTij, Jautiq, an kltepig hsendz al tageSa. 

;ai ad nou -greit diflkltlin ;getir) lijv fram mai ptarants ta 
-g6u an :sij ned, ;when -Sei njuw Sat hasri webz faaSar ad 
alaud him ta :goa tuw^, and on SI andast^ndlrj Sat It waz at 
Sa dizaiar av nedz ptarants ; bat ai faund It waz not sou ijzl 
konjans abaut Sa ;m£eta. ai traid ta :meik ]>Ii]z 
ijzl bai seilq ta mai-sclf Sat nedz psarants 'did :wont as ta 
;gOu. bat Sa konjans Iz UEetJarali sensltlv In aall juw))\ an 

«I ould tjaspl. 

main ad Mjn tendall delt wltS bai mai pEsrsnts', and ftl 
|oud nil} az kliall az posabl Sat Sa wsz beisnis an disepJM 
In Sa houl msenar av :gctlg lijv fa Sis viziL It isijmd t^ 
' 'when did nedz piarants aask jii * f iif eva, saalnll :not id^en I 
nan. an jet Sis U :w liot jii :wont jo piarants an j6 maasta I 
ta bilijv ", :Sou jii dount Igizsktli sei It. Hsaidz ', jii prttend j6 1 
:goutr) ta nedz ptaranls, when io riai! :gouli] la Si ould t|sepl. J 
Tt s a bsed biznls '. ai Craid tQ iveid SSs klia deman-strei|an') 
an :traid ta stop mai iaz ta tSa vois av konjans ; bat It waz In I 
vein : a sens av ijvl an kondimneijan rtoieind :ijvn -aafta 5»J 
vois waz saibnt. 

bat manli) keim, and ai wouk ap ; 8a san waz porSi) in al 
flad av lait : ai dgarapt ap ; at faast ai -bred a :fijlTq av ssednts ^, 
and ai said -when ai rlraembad ;hau ai d ;d5oind In roijduwii] 
an dlsijt ; bat :when ai :lukt aut an :sa Sa gbri an bjuwtl av 
tSa manig ' — :when ai :sa Sa waid fijldz slijmir) In Sa raanli] 
san ' — ;sD 5a trijz an bupz weivli) In Ba lait brijz ' — :bd tSa 
klia skai, an haad Sa baadz :siqlij neptjarasll ol raund, ai :felt 
satj dtlait at Sa prosplkt av Sa dei b!far as Sat ai Tagot ol mai 
skruwpjz', an raji ;daun sKaz, swoloud mai brekfasl, an 
harid af ta mijt hserl web. hasrl web waz kwait sz Iksaitid 
az ai woz ; bat Lwhen ai :lukt In Iz feis, wlS Its peil, dellkll 
fijljaz, ai j)at ai kad :sij treislz av Sa seim mentl straglz Sat 
■ai d :gan frniw ; fa hseri web waz a :boi av a dmld an 
dsentl dispa-zijan ; hij waz ijzI-1 :led Inta misi/if, bat dgest 
I - az ijzl-1 fraitnd at deinja 6 Sa )jat av :duwli) roq. haueva, 
wlj didnt :siop la tak av sua fijllijz ', bat set af fa nedz 

If eva Sa waz a :dei av splenda, an bjuwll, an dsoi, it waz 
tSiel ;dei. It waz :iiia 51 tend av ■MtHldjt waz In 

lis atmast iag'5uarlan!> ' s- 

-piaisnt bluw ; t 

«i ould t/sepl. 

rcdl 13 M moun ; waild rouziz an eldaflauaz weivd In tSa taijiH 

hedsrouzS an :spred -8e3 freigrans faar an waid; Sa laak 
waz ihovariT) In Si ;E3 ; Sa kukuw flitld fram pleis to pleis ', 
and atad Its dijpTst an mel6ulst nouts ; tSa graashopa t/sgpt 
(n 53 tsaf at aua lijt S an ])auzndz av insekts hamd araund 
as' — Jjauzndz av :krijtj"az :atarlij voistz av ifllait. 

enlwan flw nouz' — an huw daznt :nou *? — hau ful av 
glffidnis an bj'uwti an wanda al krf:eij"an :iz tu a tjajld, hau 
rlitl -Sei :nou av fiar or seij-zaflti, neva ;stoplr) ta rlflekt fin Sa 
swift :paas&) awei av ol auar Indgoimants, bat :spredli) -SSta 
houl haat an houp ouva Sa houl TEarilEend haraizn araund 
Sam ' — eniwan iiw :nouz al Sis, wll ges wiS :whpt egzjl'teilan 
wlj got -Df ^s dasii roud, an skauad aloq Sa paaSz Jjriiw Sa 
frej medoua fin aua ;wei ta nedz bans ; :hau wij rten mta Sa 
dijp graas ap tii aua weists S ivhen:eva w5j :sd a laak raiz 6 
:flai daun \ In Sa houp av faindlij Sa nest ; an ;Sen irsen on, 
pijpfij inta :evri buj an bjer)k, siqtq -sam skuwlboi sog ta 
ri:lijv aua haats av Sa baadn av djoi. 

wij suwn -kat rsait av ned sitli) on « geit, :lukir) aut far as ; 
Sa moumint Ij sa as, ij djamt daun, an -keim iraniij ta mijt 
as wis iz grei teria at iz hijiz. an nau wij al Jjrij :set af fa SI 
ould t|jepl az hsepl az kad bij. wij d fagotn al abaut aua 
konfanalz. ieez fa ned, ai daut tf Ij d eva -givn Sa :m;etar a 
fiat ', :ijvn at Sa biginii], wlj war az hrepl az enl :krijtjaz fin 
aa]j 'kud bij. wSj -sed Sa isens av paaflkt libalT; wij -Eed a 
houl satna dei bifor as \ whitj tii a bol Iz an J'taanltl ; Sa war 
lohdglkts av Ingrousti) intarest al raund as ; an sou wij :went 
on\ lukii) Inlii evri{)ii), laaflg, wandrTrj evrl step av aua faiv 
:mail djaanT. tQ a 'msen faiv maitz Iz 'na]iir| ; tii a 'boi it s a 
:d5aanl av vaast niEegnitjiiwd S :fild wtS lm:prej'anz Sat I neva 
bl fagotn. 

& .-kantri wij paast firiiw — az ai rlmembarlt' — stiX 

Si ould tjEepl. 55J 

sijmz t3 rnij wandafl-1 bjuwtifl. ned lansti :sijmd tu as tSa 
;moust nouTri av motlz. hij nau bl-gsen la Jou as whot Ij kad 
duwS an pniwv tSat Ij hiednt bousfid fa na})!r). wlj :haad Tz 
dog baaklij laudil', an rasn ta ^g :pleis az kwik az wlj kud\ 
an S3 Im — wl5 a lonf; 'sneik In iz imauf)', an Jeikli) It 
fjuarfasli *, whaiJ It raiSd In Iz dsaz \ an sent aut a moust 
panjant an venamaa smel. Sa dog suwn kild It\ an ned 
tuk aut Iz naif, an stript -af Its skin \ ati held It ap til 
:auar admaiariij aiz : It :lukt laik a bjuwtifl vtarigeitld riban, 
bat Sis :woz nt al : hIj ;kat It oupn, an wlj :s3 tfi auar 
astonijmant a hjuwds toud Sat it ad swoloud houl. w!j went 
on, :fild wliS wandar at Sljz njuw an streing fekts. ned rouz 
:nou end In auar esti'meijan. 

Sa nekst moumlnt wlj agen :haad tSa dog baak ', an :when3 
wij ;keim ap tii Im, wij :faund im wiS a prikil bal V niall as ' 
big az :wan av aua hedz \ :roullij It abaut ; hljd :faund It In a 
hijp av ded lijvz at Sa :botam av a ditj'. ned waz dllaitid ', 
an kraid aut 'a hedgog', a hedsog'. :Sen ij :sed ' Jal mai 
dog kil it ? It :iz nt *evrl ;dog Sot kan :kil a ihedgog. >Tnain 
kEen r det Im aloun a :imiiit ', an juw 1 :suwn aij ', wij :aed 
' nou \ nou ', det Sa pua JjIij liv '. ' :veri we! ' ' sid ned. 
hij puld Iz :dog of, an wij :went an :stud a ditl -wei af, an tfl J 
aua wandar an dllait ;suwn :S3 Sa :prikll :bal kojasll an-roul, I 
an gnedsfjall rput fajj a btek snaut an faa bijek, jainlij legz', ' 
an sk^nipar awei inta Sa hedj. 

iwhail wij wa ful av t^s :sijn, Sa sadnll -keim .-swijplrj ratmd 
as sam baadz wiS laads wir|z, an alariij jril, waild kraiz. 
:samiaimz -Sei rouz inta 61 Ea wiS a weivarirj flait S rsamtaimz 
-Sei :pit/t hevlli daim ', an :Sen :fluw ap a-gen ', whijlli] hiar 
an Seb ', an ^sijmd az :if -Sei wa gouii) ta ;Qai awei fram as, 
-when :3l av a sadn -Sti ;keim bsek az kwikH az -Sei d gan, 
an defnd as wiS -Sta melaijkall liemin'iei^ani,. 


«1 ould tf^pl. 

~6ei :d£ejt klous bai as wlS la,iid loijdmi frijks an t 
az :if -ttei ws masd wiS grijf an tera. ' wlj d beta ;kijp 3 
Jaap luk'aut -hia ' ', -sed ned \ ' tS egz a Slj'z pijwils kaant bl 
faar of — 6 priEps Sa jaq baadz '. Tn anatSa minlC tj stopt, 
an pointid at Sa graund * — a ;pijs av bEa paastja, wlj kad 
:sij bat sam daaklukii) ijiiijz laik lamps av braun klei \ 
an aast Im whot -Sei waa, ' iwhal -Sta jag '■pijwTts * 'j (j 
:sed ; an :Sou -Sei :lei az moujanlis az :if -Sei wa -riali ;lamps 
av :klei, hlj put Sam In an emtl "blEekbaadz ;nest, an maatjt 
of wl Sam. ta kanvins as Sat -Sei 'waa nt :riali ded, hjj suwn 
:put t5am daun a-gjen, an wlj -went an :stud sam -wei af. 
Juar Inaf -Sei suwn :Joud evri sain av laif, an bl:gfen ta 
;meik -Star Iskeip. wTj put Sam bask inta Sa nest, an kierid 
Sam af In traiamf', fa boiz a reklia In -Sta pa:sjuwt av plesa ; 
an wlj :went fram bruk ta bruk an fram kops ta kops, stil 
ifaindlg njuw tresaz far auar Inseijabl hsendz, wlj ;faiind 
laaks :egz, wudpidjanz ;egz an a handrad -aSa kaindz av 
:egz ; an Sa big blsekbaadz ;nest waz suwn fild \ an a frajlz 
:nest blsaidz. 

In iffekt wlj wa sou saksesfl Sat wlj got a lit! taiad av It ^, 
an bI;gKn ta :luk abaut as :mDa. It waz a bjuwtlfl an soKtri 
kantri. wlj :stud on a bait. Sa waz not a "haus ta bl sijn ', 
Ikisept a solltil faamhaus hiar an Ssar in Sa va^llz raund as. 
6n Sis bait Sa wa greit wudz av hjuwdj trijz wiS a pik 
andagrou]:' av holi, juw, boks, an aSar evagrijnz. 

:Sen wlj :keim tii a waid geitwei Sat ;sijmd ta lijd ta -sam 
einfant msenjan in Sa wudz. Sa wa mseslv pilaz on ijtj said 
a Sa geit ; and on Sa top av ijtj pila Sa waz a stoun dragan ' 
— Sa krest a Sa fasmlH SI listeit bllor|d tQ. wlj :lukt at Sljz 
:drjeg3nz wIB wanda ; Sei :fild aua maindz wl5 afl aidiaz av 

ii Intjaantid domein, 

d^i ned .-draw as awei -tadz Si obdjlkt av auar ekspl-dijan. 

wlj nan :bo a long stijp vaell binijji as^wiS a smDl bruk:raoir| 
Jiruw It. :Sis :bruk rfen intii a siariz 3v 'fijpondz \ whit/ ;lukt 
-verl ouldS fa -Sta saidz wa Jsegi wiS rijdz^, an Sa wa 
;Jiiklts av einjant JiDntrijz isksetad aloij Sam \ an Sa wa laadj 
trijz :grouIi) klous ta Sam w(?S fes:tu\vnz a So moust lag- 1 
■guariant aivl. 'S3 houl veU -hsed an :Ear av lounllnls an 
pikt/aTesk ragldms Sat :meid It .-sijm wel fifid fa SI a:boiid 
av -fanz an 'seiiaz an Sa greit god 'pien. az wlj wakt alor) bai 
Sa :said a Sljz pondz, an lukt daun on Sa dijp, daak waia, wlj 
kud nt :help a JijUi) av : wlj staatid :evrl [aim a fi| lijpf 
lisnd solamll ta nedz tak av 'otaz Sat laakt In t$a ]}ik Tines ar 
flffigz n rijdz. 

bst blhould, -Sia waz ?SI ould tj^pl, dijp daun In 8a vjellz. 
waz a ruwln ', wiS wan grei taua :raizTq bai a-bav Sa big^ 
grei, twislid trijz Sat wa iskselad raund It : Sa war einjant- 
luklri jianz, lou:spredIr), niosl meiplz, juwz, an krfebtrijz :kavad 
wiS Inamas banjiz av jelou misltou. laadg siounz an hjuwdg 
:ni¥slz av meisnri ;lei abaut \ :|oulq :whot ad bljn 51 aridzlnal 
Ikstent a Sa bildlq. a :flok av dgaekdaz an staallrjz fiuw :raund 
Sa taua ', an ;fluw in an aut inarias houlz an windouz ihsq^ 
wis braia\ tjtetarlri :3l Sa :taim ; -Sei :sijmd ta -meik Sa soU- 
Ijuwd -maa sensabll felt, 

ned niaatjt on ijgaB. wij foloud In sailatis \ tl! a radi wijil 
rfen a-kros sua paaji, and a wudpidgan daatid aut av a ]j3d 
:kavad wiS alvp, and aua boilj ijganis av kjuarl'oslti waz rauzd 
a-gen. wlj rien on, an wa :suwn In Sa imidst a Sa mfiust. 
intrasliq dlskavarlz. wlj ;faund al 'kaindz av egK ; misljjrajls 
:egz, wudpidganz, redstaats, red linlts, an :inem aSa kaindz » 

bat Sa ruwind tjap] waz Sa mein :obdglkt av infarest. not. 
on a:kaunt av Its cen-tlkwltl or its aaklteklja 6 Sa memarl av j 

luz berld anda'nijji It, bat bI;koz a Si 'aulz' a'a ■aS&^-s 




■Si ould t/sepl. 

krijtjaz wij Iksipektid ts faind In Si ould taus. wlj :sa Sa davx 
an staaKrjz igoulrj in an aut tSa taua', an Ss blEek swifts 
skrijmiij raund It ; an wij logd, an jet -fell ;haaf afrcid ta pijp 
inta SeI daak apa starl a t!a taua. bat hau ta get -Sta ^? It 
waz a kansidrabl hait ; 5a walz wa dikeid an broukn S an did 
nt :sijm ta ;giv -enl futhould. ned hauieva, wlS al Si adgiEtl 
av a skuwlboi, })ruw -of iz kouC, an xIeeJItj in a-maq 5a grijn 
wildanls av mretouz an netlz at Sa iftit a 5a taua, biigsen. tii 
Snsaat Iz fii}gaz an touz inta 5a dsoints a Ca meisnri ; an :5en 
bi-g£en ta klaim ap, ;verl -matj" az a 'flai klaimz -ap a :pein av 
glaas. wij Jadad az wij :stud bilou', an :sa Im hsijii) -sam 
fati fijt abav aua hedz*, :whEa 5a :si]md naj>lr| ta sapat im*. an 
whot 'did sa:p3t Im waz kantinjijall kranibli] andar im *, 
an :fel pa;tarir| at aua ;fijt. bat In a ijuw sekandz Ij waz 
at 5a did goj)ik belfriwindou % an wlS a Jaut av traiamf krept 
in an disa-piad. a moumtot aafla hij put aut Iz hed, o\ kavad 
w55 kobwebz, an Jautid ' 'ap w!5 jii S boiz ^, :if jii wont a :sij 
9 sait waaji sijii) I' 

:5is waz sou Ik'saitlg Sat ai fagot mai fama tera, an rsen ta 
Sa wol an bl-gfen ta klaim ap in 5a ;seim :wei az 'hij ad -dan ; 
pua web waz afreid. :when ai got Inta Sa daak pleis, ai waz 
stjuwplfaid wi5 astonI|mant. at d hoad av keivz n hah laitid 
wis -kaabariklz, an rial! It sijmd az If Sis pleis wa laitid In Sa 
seim wei ', far ai :sa raund, jel6u balz av faia on al saidz ', 
glouli) moust afl-I. -Sei wa Si aiz av 'aulz ; an Sa waz :satj 
a hisli) an ik'saitmant, an astf an £er|gri snEepIi] av bijks az 
waz wandafl. 

' -hia -Sei aa', -hia -Sei aa ! ' :kraid ned Ig'zaltltjll', az Ij :brat 
tuw :jaq aulz ta Sa lait. -Sei wa ful fledgd. 'wll ju ihsev 
-enl morf Ij aast'. bat djest az Ij spouk, 1Si ould ;aulz 
a:bav aua :hedz ;sijmd ta -get niEd wiS reidg \ an d:e|c an 
daai/d obnut in o moust alaamli] '.wei ; an wan a Sam fluw at 

■SI ould tjiepl. 59 

:nedz feis wRS -salj a SEBvIdj sntep Sat ai iks:pektTd ta ;sij Iz 
■nouz -kara Df, hij kraid aut, sn :put iz hffind ta 5a :pleis, 
and ImijdsatH ai ;s3 tSa blad strijmlq daun Iz ijijk. hlj Jjruw 
Sa :jar| :aulz :aut a Sawindou, puld -af Iz hast, an stud at bei \ 
;redl ta nok :daun Mz enlmlz \ wiS 3 :luk av desprit reids. fa 
mai -paat, ai :])at It moust advaizabl ta bl af ; sou ai got aut 
a Sa windou, an klaimd daun wlS a :gudijl av diflkkl an 
deinsa. ai :faund hserl web bI;!ou In ekstaslz ouva 5a jag 
aulz. hi] d kavad Som ouva wI6 Iz hset ; anwhen:ev3r Itwaz 
diflid ap, -5ei hist an snsept moust f)lak!ll. ned suwn foloud 
wiS Iz feis ;ol kavad wi6 blad \ an wlj :faund 5i ould aul ad 
:riall teikn a ;pijs :aut av Iz iJijk. wlj stopt 5a blijdlri wlS 
sam faa', a:kadig ta 5a ;moust apruwi-d mejiad av skuwlboi 
saadsarl; an :8en bl-ga;n ta rilaan houm ', wlS aua hsendz ful 
av buwti. ned -bed Si aulz, web -h^d luw nesis :ful av egz, 
and ai -hted Sa blrekbaadz :nest wl 5a :jai] pijwits In it. 

wlj :went a gud -wei ap 5a vjell ', ful av aua kasptjaz an 
adventjaz ', an taklg laudfl abaut Sam, -when nedz dog 
staatid a ksnkreik In a beifijld. hlj :sed Iz :dog kad ;ran It 
daun ; an Sa tem-ieifan waz tuw strotj ta bi rizistld. sou 
ol:5ou wlj wa verl harjgrl an raaSa taiad', wlj irasn rait Inta 
53 :midl a Sa hai graas ', wlSaut :stopIi) ta riflekt Sat wlj wa 
:duwir| nou end av mistjif. wlj wa suwn In fu! pasjuwt : wan 
:minlt wij :haad 5a :baad :kraiii) kreik kreik klous tuw as, :Seii 
wlj :sa It raiz In :frant a 5a :dog, flai a Htl :we!, an ;Sen :drop 
daun a-gen. In 5a :midl a Sis ned htepnd ta ;luk raund; hlj 
sadnll -taand peil, an wl5 Iz juwsQa! ekskb-meijan 'bai 
dgouv 1 ' .-tuk tii Iz hijlz at a trlmendaa pels, wij lukt ;raund 
tuw ', an :sa a big kanlrl :felou kamlij :daun Sa hil In ful tjeis 
av as wiSaut -meiklrj a saund, at Sis sait web 'skrijind wlS 
tera ', jiruw :daun Iz nests av pi - 1' laif, 'ai rjen 

tuw, jiiw mei bl :Jua; = 


£n ^^m 


W€o ^r ould tjxpl. 

I 13 Im, hij :sent aaftar as salj a terabl hsluw Sat wTJ dsampt d 
Tif wlj d !)ljn Joi \ an rsn on wiS ljI tSa spijd Sat waz ;in as. 
ned waz alTcdl at Si end 3 So fijid', anwiSwan ]ijp knejt 
^riiw Ss hedj. web meid fa Ba ihedg a :litl :loua daun *, and 
•an-fat/anaUI planjd Intii a bog ^, whitj Ij did nt noutis b!:koz 
It waz :kavad wiS tol grijn graas. hij ssEr/k rap tfi Iz weist ', 
an :atad a mous pitlfl krai av tera an dispta. ai rfelt sou sort 
f5r Tm Sat ahSou Sa terabl mEn waz bihaind mi, ai kud nt 
:help stopli) a :minlt an fautli) tu Im ' fa jo 'laif, :hseri *, diej 
on\ da;/ on 1' hij :meid*a desprit efat ; Sa bogwoz nt a -veil 
waid -wan, an Ij :got aut av It, an skriembld Jiriiw Sa beds - 
almoust at Sa seim moumint. wlj fluw aloi) Sa nekst fijld 
wlB bre))lls spijd S an wheSa Sa :mEen dost sait av as 6 :not, 
ai kaant tel^, bat v,1j suwn :faund aua-selvz :aut av sait av Ini ; 
an wlj did nt sij Im a-gen til wlj :got ta Sa :top av a hil\ :wh£a 
wSj :faund ned pjentii) an beiSd In paaspa'iei|an ^, an steijand - 
bl:haind a tal faazbaj ', wotpi) Si enlmi S hiiw :sijmd ta bi 
9 Icanlrjll ;meikfij a saakit, sou az ta :teik as bai sapraiz. :when 
" Vlj d :got sou faa Sat wlj didnt :})igk Ij d pasjuw as -em moa, 
wlj lei daun on Sa graas, an traid ta -get aua brejj a-gen. wlj 
Sen faund Sat ned In Iz flait ad :kept faam hould o Sa jaq 
aulz ^,- — sou faam In ifsekt Sat Ij d slrsrigld Sam, an sti! held 
Sam In Iz hmndz wiSaut noulij -Sei wa ded. ai Jukt at Sa 
nest ai d bijn kEerlir) ; It waz stil Sta, bat Sa pijwits ad bJjn 
Jeikn aut an lost ; an rwhen ai fjot av whot mas blj -Sta feit, 
ai dount rimembar eva -hEvli) a kijna :sens av rimos, Iksept 
wans S -wben ai d :put a houl kampani av fijldmais intn a 
droa, an fagot Sam. :when ai asksl'dend-T oupnd Sa :droa a 
fotnait aaftawadz, ai ;faund Sa pua krijtjaz ad bIjn :drivn bai 
haijga ta kil an ijt wano:naSa; an Sta sxt wan solltrl maus 
In Sa :midst a Sa bounz av iz kam'pEenjanz, himself in Sa laas 

«i ould tfspl. 6i 

wij W3 greitW dlsaatnd bsi sua mlsfstjanz ; an wTj wa ten 
taimz maa kaas daun -when wlj jj3t a Sa jaij pijwits ; an nan 
Sat vA] WD tajad aut, an ad waakt laf auar in-JjjuwzlEezm, aua 
konjanslz agen ;spouk aut ', an wlj went along seedll an 

wlj wa nan bai Sa :said a Sa big wud wlj d :sijn In 8a 
manii] ; an It :lnkt az :if wlj war in far a -hej mIs:fot/an^, fa Sa 
dog bT;gaen ta -get :veri trablsam : hlj -went hanlli] al ouva Ka 
wud \ an wud nt abei nedz kalz. wij snwn rhaad Sa {landar 
av a feznts raiz kious tuw as *, an :6en Si ijga baakli) a tSa 
dog. ned got ouva t5a peilltj an :kraid ' ;luk hia ', :!uk hia 1 ' 
wij :klaimd ouva tuw ', an blhould, Sta waz a feznts :nest, and 
at ;lijst haafadazn egz In it I ' "hiaz a praJz ',' -sed ned \ ' wlj 1 
teik am\an put am -andar a hen,' 'bat wountit bl ■poutjli)?' 
-sed ai '. ' *ou :jes,' -sed Ij briskll ', putlr) Sam In ffia kraun av 
Iz hast \ ' jQw ma poutj -sam a Sam :if ju laik ' ; n6u daut 
-Sei 1 bi verl gud,' an :Sen Ij laaft at Iz oun wit. In Sa 
:midst av Iz daafta wij ihaad a braanj :kr^k bihaind as \ an 
lukli] raund, wlj :sd a tal dsentlman istiEndlij luklij -set as 
IntentU an saJiantH, sou af wlj went a:gen jjriiw Sa wud \ 
whail wlj ihaad Sa dgentlman :JautIr| ' 'atop -Sia \ -stopl' bat 
huw d stop whail Ij kad ran f ' wlj :suwn baast intii a :s3t av 
oupn piedak S an fluw a;kr3s It, wiSaut ;nouiij wbcar It :led 
tfl. evr! :nau an Sen wlj :haad Sa dgentlmanz dogwhisl ^, an 
Sa :Eaund :fild as wiS tera, an rmeid as rldabl aua spijd. tanstl 
an web klaimd 6uvar a geit at SI aSar rend a Sa psedak ; ai 
dielt Jjruw a gasp In Sa hedj \ an faund mai-self In a gaadn 
wis a kollds In it. ta raai infinlt tera ai ;ols6u rso a staut 
-lill iHiEn in Sa ijaadn ', hQw az ;suwn az Ij sa mlj, Jautid aut 
' 'Stop \ ai nou ju \ ai nou jii 1' hlj tnait az :wel av :tould Sa 
■san ta ;stop. ai waz In a frenzt av despaTei/an ; ;whot wl Sa 
fiar av bijii] t " hljlr| brot bl-far a au&d?js.ts%. 



■.6a «I ould tjEcpI. 

an tSa :fi3r sv -sam dlgreidli) panl/msnt, si wsz blS 
man. si fluwJjriiwSa gaadn :haaf blaind wlS lera, dsejl Jiruw a 
bed Cat ad dses bijn soun' — iprobabJt witS anjansijd, farit waz 
plaantid wlS weivlq 'pijlcolc ifeCaz ts fraitn 3-wei Sa baadz ' — 
an :tSen ai fel Intu a 'liiuwltanibafreim wiS a greit krEef av glaas. 
si W3Z nau dgest at Sa dsr a tSa IcotTdg, -when ai ;s3 a rlitl 
geit', and£eJ't])ruwll\anatCaseimnioumTnt ai-kot sait a mai 
tuw felou fjuwdgitlvz \ hiSw wa 'dgeat Tanlr) :inlii a kops. ai 
rasn aafta Sam, an suwn ouva-tuk Sam. wlj teh aloq a paafi 
far a:baut haaf a maii ^, an :faindlq Sa waz nouwan aaftar as, 
wlj jjruw aua-selvz on Sa graund ', ouva:kam wiS Igzostjan, 
lera, an dlspEa. wij :Iei -SEar a lotj taim !n sailans ', Ik:scpt 
Sat web ground -evrl :nau an t5en ; tanstl :lei wlS iz feis on 
Sa graund in a :sDt av salin Kpajri. it waz :gei?q daak \ an 
web bi-gfen ta ;krai 'on dia *, hau p wlj ;faind aua :wei 
houm?*' az IJ ;sed :Sia, ned dgampt ap, an W-gEen ta :Iuk 
abaut im *, az :if la reka-noita aua pazijan. az 1j :muwvd a 
;litl -wei from as, Iz fut strak a-genst ;sani}>tg, an iuklg daun 
ij ;sed 'whot s Sis'?' wij dgampt ap an lukt at Sa ;p!eis\ an 
:so a hukd steik drivn inta Sa graund \ an a strotj aian t|ein 
^ fag^nd til It, ' ;whot In 5a ncim av wanda z Sis ' ? -sed ned ', 
an W-gffin ta Jjrou :3f Sa mos an Ejvz Sat kavad Sa t/ein ', ta 
sij whot It waz faa. wij :stud klous bai, wotjiij xqjasli' — 
'when Jl ai faget Sa 'hora av -Sset moumint ! — ^Sa waz a 
mou|an an a Jada :ardar aua fijt, az :if wlj d trodn on -sam 
livlri TpiT}, a klKi) av aian, an a /rijk fram web, an wij ;salm 
stsendli) In Sa fsegz av a monstras stijl trEp ! 

wlj :3tud ruwtld ta Sa graund wiS hora ; bat :when wlj 
:haad Sa grounz av pua web, an ;s3 (h)au dedli peil Ij :woz, 
wlj lukt raund ta sij whot wlj kad duw. wlj lukt at Sa terabl 
majijn, ta sij If its afl aian tijji, whitj wij d sou afn haad a:baut, 
ad piast prUw tz paiz \ an faund til aua greit rllijf Sat It 


m -er 

«I ould tj^pl. 

■enl :tijji; It waz sou kanstraktid az ts hould Sa limz 
wTSaut vaitl-i indgarlr) tSaiii ^, an :jet wlS a dredfl prejar an 

fa mai -paal, ai puld -set It msEdll \ az :if mai impeijant 
efats war eva :laikli ta muwv it ; bat tansll, huw waz kuwla, 
:Joud beta dgadgmant : hlj renjt Sa hukt steik fram Sa graund, 
an pujt It inta Sa mau]: a Ba tra3p\ an ;traid ta iijvar it oupn. 
bat It waz d1 in vein ; an In Sa :midl av It a], a tal kijpa sadnK 
apiad *, an isij'zd hould av as wIS a laud gafa S an ;geiv ned 
an mi] tii a masn blliaind Im : an ;Sen ;teik5i) a -pijs av aian 
:aut av Iz pokit, hij aplaid It ta Sa trrep S an wij :sa It 
grEedguall oupn Its tilmendas dgaz. Sa niEen sijzd web witSaut 
:sei"ir) a waad S an puld im aafiar Im J3ruw 3a wudz ; an SI 
aSa ;mien did Sa seim wiS ned an mij. wij suwn :faund 
aua-selvz at a koildj. :aa(la Sa kijpaz waif ad lukt -set as an 
:sed -samfjli) abaut Sa fiafl wikldnis a Sa preznt elds, wij wa 
put intQ a :sat av lambarum wlS a mjetrls on Sa :fl3a. ta duw 
Sa ;mren dgastiSjlj :brat as ijtj a pik :ban_f avbred an a beisn 
av mjik, an left as -Sta fa 5a nait. 

jiiw mi Tma;d3in aua fijlir|Z. tansti waz salin an sailant "; an 
suwn -went ta slijp ; bat pua web :!ei an sobd bitall', an preid 
god faavantli ta fagiv im \ an ristar Im tii Iz piarants ; s6u Sat 
In spait av mai oun mizari ai kud nt :help :putig mai aaniz 
raund iz nek, an traiit) ta kamfat Im. ou-Siet loi], driarl nait I 
:wheSa wij slept 5 n5l, ai kaant tel ; bat It sijrad az If It ad 
•neva -kam lu an end. wij ;haad K ould Idok In Sa haus :gou 
klik klsk ; an evrl taim It :strak Si aua, It :meid a wbizli), 
rarlq saund \ az ;if It -led Si assma ; wij :haad Sa kriklls 
tjaaplij noizill \ an 'heitld Sa :saund ; wij :haad Sa Jaap baak 
a Sa foks autsaid ; an evri taim Sa foks baakt, Sa woljdog at 
Sa daa :geiv a dijp haul bai -wei av aansa ; and a kok In Sa 
'ift ouvar aua :hedz went on kroulg az :if Ij d neva stop ; and 




64 Si ould tjaspl- 

it :sijmd az If Sa niDnlri ad neva karti, bat It keini an^^E; 
an :aafta wlj d ij'tj" -hasd anaSa :pijs av bred an a beisn sv Tajik, 
6a kijpa :brat as aut, an tuk as ]iruw 5a wudz to Sa greit hoi. 
ou Sa dizmal sigklq an bijtiri av sua haats ! wlj wa gouiq lu 
apia bT:fD Sa niEdjistrTl az poutjaz an vsegabandz ; wlj Jad bl 
panijl— sentanst ta pijnl saavltjuwd — pr^ps hfeqd I its nou 
Jfiws :trallr) ta diskraib aua sen'seifanz. wTj wa rfaast ;teikn 
TntQ a lobl \ -whtar a :lot av smaat futman -keim an stsad set 
as\ an dgtad set as San :meid ol kaindz av fiipant andlnsaltJq 
rimaaks. :Sen wlj wa :brDl Inta Sa :prezns a Sa ma;d3lEtrIt 
Imself ; an bihould ! It waz Sa veri djentlman wlj d :sijn In tJa 
wudz, hlz Jclaak ' — a fa^t -litl :msen in spekfiklz ' — waz sitii] 
at a teibl wIS Iz peipaz blfar im ; an Sa mcedslstnt sed IQ im 
'jes', Sijz boiz a Ba veri wanz ai :sa jestadi In Si :Eekt av 
robiq a feznts :nest ; and It s wan a Sam Sat s :dan sou :matj 
mistjif In pKtrik rsmzlz gaadn. whot s Sa penltl fa -Star 
afenslz V ' Sa penltl, -saa,' aansad Sa klaak, iukli) -EEt as 
]>rflw iz big, Et£arlij spektiklz, 'Iz faiv paundz ijlj an Si 
Ikspensiz av worant fa Sa poulptj, an ta ;meik ful kompln- 
■seijan fa Sa dfemldg -dan In rsemziz gaadn ; In feiljar av 
■aiSar a Sijz potikjaJaz, kaimitmant ta Sa :haus av karek- 
Jan fa Jirij manjjs ; an SEt s nou daut whot -Sei 1 get -saa ; 
far ;if ai kan djadg bai -Star apiarans, nou kcej 1 bt hp 

an truwil mlsta Iki) mait wel -teik It fa graantid ; fa tan az 
wlj -waa wfiS braiaz, kavad wiS mad an dast an blad, tanatl 
wis Iz tpjk p£el|t wis faa, and ol av as hsgad wlS fatijg an fia, 
wlj saatnll :kat a mous dlsrepjatabl figa. 

:when wlj :haad Sis sentans, wlj lost ol kamaand av aua- - 
-selvz. wlj kraid, Impbd, and :ijvn daanst abaut Sa :flar In 
anar EganI av maind. bat It waz nou juws. Sa mEdsistrIt 
bikt at as siviali, an tould as to bl sailant in a laud, haaj v 

Si ould tjapl. 65 

an wlj ■W33 sailsnt ; ol Ik-sept pua web \ hfiw nelt at Sa fijt a 
Sis Dfl msen \ an rag iz htendz wlS a moust pillas luk 6n iz 
feis ^, an ;kraid ' ou :saa \ dia :saa ^, duw, 'daw fagiv as fSis 
wans; It s mai ■b33f)dei on sandl, an Lif juw 1 ounll fagiv 38, 
ai 1 send ju -sam av mai plam pudii).' (5a naa'ijvtl av ?SIs a:drea 
waz tuw matj fa Sa waaSi mien : far a :mouraInt Ij sttad at 
Sa iboi In sailanl aslonifmant ', an :iSen ij :put iz hsendz tfi Iz 
saidz, an baast Intii a laud :tit av laafta. It waz sam taim 
bi:f3r ij kad kampoaz Im-self ; and Iz fiet -lit] kiaak ekoud Iz 
maastaz brad laaf wlS a tjaklli] hee, bee, hee, an J5a rimaak 
■ wel S If Sset Iznt kleva ! ' 

at leijjj tSa msdglstrlt put on a siarlaa kauntlnans *, :t5ou1t 
waz evidanfij kad haadll :ki]p Im-self fram baastlij aut 'laaflij 
a:g-en. :&n Ij :sed 'jo baa])dei', mai boi' — anhuwa juw'?' 
' :ou ai m hffirl web, hierl web -saa.' ' 'web',' -sed Sa mjedslstrit, 
' whot |uall jo :not Sa san av mista web av heizfad ? ' ' ou 
■jes ai sem sa; whot I mai pua papaa an mamaa ;duw ! ou 
whot -wil -Sei duw !' SSa msedglslrlt :si}md sapraizd \ an :sed 
' an huw a ffil 'aSa :tuw'?' hierl neimd mij ; an 8a maedglstrtl 
:sed 'gud hevnz I hau did jii :get Inta Sis kan:dijan*? an 
hau did jfl :kam ta bl teikirt mai feznts :nest ? huw z Sis aSa 
:boi?' 'ou -saa, It 3 ned tanstl.' 'ned tansdi' Iks;kleimd 
Se mtedglstrlt ; *aa, ai sij It ;al :nau. tanstl \ ai v 'haad av j6 
duwlqz. ai v haad av a saatn grei -teria ju :kijp ta dlstaab :ol 
8a geim In Sa pserlj. Miv haad av jQ, "ai kan tel jQ. sSu jfl 
:kijp a *ferlt — and a net tuw ' — ta kretj rfeblts. an juw nou 
hau ta get a-krDs Sa pond In a wojtab ', an -get :on ta Sa 
heranailand \ an klaim Sa big trijz In Sa heranrl In ;BpaiC av 
tentahuks n :al. ai 1 tel jfl -whot ', -maasta tanstl *, jflw 1 -get 
■haeijd :wan a ^jz deiz.' 

Sa mjedjistrit :Sen :rEerj a bel ', an a msen :keim in. hlj 
pointid at web an mij, an :sed ' hia', te\.t ^\t. \>s«^«sa. ■«» 

«3 jag Txt. 

-I5t3 pama: nba dsu -^nr leqifas abant tbm^^Si^ 
mlata Ixi), aend a nont wtS ijij a &mii in Iksplcin -audi vliot 
»»kaiiisi9ndz -Sei ketra Uf^ mQ, an :gtv Sxn pcopa vjnS^ 
9v jaj) lanstL si p :sei)d "ISxt iboJ tfi Iz baSa wiS a noot 
av » 'difrant :kaiiid.' 

wlj W3 nau lUijst fram Sa terss av bn|»uiinHnt an pijnl 
»Mvitjfiwd 9D hsifj); b9t ^ J] nen target 3oa Jdm an 
hjfiwmiSdJan :wben »1J :ke!m boom, it wai a brait, hot 
iam^ dei ; :evrl]>]i] araund as :sijmd to ripoui m bjuwil aa 
haeptais ; whail vrij -keim bontD luegad, txtsd, »d ifigTieiifid *, 
Uak soa -menl prodigal saoz. :A aa^ gbri wax :taand Tnta 
dfzaastar an fcantemt. wlj 'keim boom inS a :seiis av ijvl 
a:pon m ', and aua boats wa saa when wl j |«t av BS sifzailtil 
an distres av au3 pcarants. 

^ wount :trai ta diskraib aua risepjan -vben wlj -keun 

houm * — Sa djoifl sapraiz \ Sa warn Imbrds ', Ca tiaz ', an CI 

eksplaneijanz iSaei :fol6ud \ an Sa ripniwfs. Its Inaf ta sei 

Sat Sis ekspl-dijan ts Si ould ijxpl sz bljn a lesn ti> as ol aua 

I laivz. Tt Joud as baa juvrsQs It :iz ta sijk pleja Iksept la % 

ma* an streitrJbwadnls. 


waz vans a jat] 

rjet Qw wud nt -teik Sa trabi 

l"ap Iz isaind. :when Si aSa :ia£t% aast Im If Ij 
-kam aut wi Sam X nait, hij d :sei 'ai donn(t) 
[ when -Sei :sed ' wud j 

;kik t 

:Eiop St houmT 

isetl »hil|1j riaikt best. 
wan del an ould :i 

: hij wud nt -teik Sa irabl ta ; roeik 

? ki3 fa ju, if jii gou on laik Sis. jim \ 

?3 Jar) r^et. 


msund San 3 :bleid av graas ! It mei bl gud ts giv -ap j5r I 

oun :wei samtsimz, bat It s not gud ta -hsev nou :wei av ]6r 1 
:oiin alol.' 

Sa jaq rset sat ap an lukt waiz, bat sed najjli). 

' dount ju 'jiigk sou ^ ? ' :sed Ci out .'grei rast ', and Tj :geiv 1 
3 stsemp wis iz fut ; far ij kud nt 'bta ta :aij tSa jai) inet 

' ai doun nou ' waz ol Sa jar| iraet sed ; an :Sen fj wakt of 1 
wis slou steps ^, ta 'jiiijk far an aua iwheSar ^j Jad :stei at i 
houm in iz houl, 6 gou aut In 6a bft. 

wan dci tSa waz a greit noiz in Sa bft. it waz a -verl ould i 
:Iaft S ^\i Sa niwf let In Sa rein ', an Sa bijmz war oi rotn \ 
s5u Sa rpleis woz nt seif ta liv In. at laast wan a Sa dsoists ' 
-geiv wei S an Sa bijm fel wit5 wan end on 8a Baa, Sa wolz | 
Juk, an al Sa rEets hta :siud on end wTB frait, 

'Bis woun(t) duw*' -sed Si ould rasts, an -Sei Juk -Sta 
grei heda az -Sei spouk', ' wTj mas lijv Sis :pleia.' 

sou -Sei :senl aut skauts ta luk far a njuw houm. In Sa ■ 
nait Sa skauts :keira baek, an :sed -Sei d :faund an ould baan', 
:wb£a Sa d bi rum an fuwd fa Sam ol. 

' -Sen wij d beta -gou at -wans ^ ' -sed Si ould ;raet ^, hfiw was 
ijijf ; :Sen ij :geiv M oda ' fom in Iain 1 ' 

Sa nets -keim aut a -Sta houlz, an :atud on Sa fiar !n a log 

' a jii ol hia ? ' -sed W ould :r:et, an Ij lukt raund ' — ' 
jii ol disaidid ta gou ? — :meik -ap jo maindz at -wans.' 

' jes \ jes * ' :sed ol Sa rasts In Sa lain. 

dges Sen Si ould :riet -kat sait av jaij grip' — iSast wa; 
jai) rnets neim' — : Wj woz nt 'in Sa :lain, and Ij woz nt I 
Ig:z!ektli aufsaid It ; hlj :stud dges bai It. 

'jii did nt "spijk, :grip^' :3ed SI ould rret', 'av kas jft ] 

!♦< ^ » 

68 waild laif. 

* di doun nou ^ ' :sed grip. 

' dount nou ' I : whai jii doun :J>ii)k it s 'seif :duw ju ? 
' 9i doun nou ' ' :sed grip ; * 89 niwf mei nt :kam doun 

\ jet ^' 

i * wel ^, stei -tSen ^ ' :sed dna'Sa irset \ * an saav jii rait if jc 

1 kUd/ 

* ai doun nou tSat ai 1 stei ' * :sed grip ; ' 8a ruwf 'mait :kani 
daun suwn '/ 

* wel ^' -sed tSi ould raet, ' wij kaant weit fa jiiw ta :meik -ap 
jo maind. rait abaut feis ! maatj ! ' 

an 8a loi) lain 'maatft aut a 8a bft. daun 8a :steps -8ei 
went, wan bai wan^, whail 8a jag raet :lukt on. 

* ai 'J^igk ai 1 :gou' ' hij sed tu imself, * bat jet ai doun 
nou '; it s :nais an snag hia '.' 

8a teil a 8a laast raet waz bs ta sait az ij spouk. hij went 
ta 8a steps an lukt daun. ' ai 1 :gou -baek ta mai houl far a 
:bit/ -sed :hij, * dges ta :meik -ap mai maind.' 

8aet nait 8a waz a greit kraej. daun -keim bijmz, dsoists, 
tailz ' — ^8a houl ruwf. 

nekst dei sam men *J&eim ta :luk at 8a bft. 8ei :]73t it od 
-8ei did nt -sij :eni raets ; bat at laast wan a 8am :hsepnd ta 
muwv a big tail, an ij :sa a jar; rset, kwait ded, haaf in an haal 
aut av its houl. 

waild laif. 

gud manii) ; jor ap aali : ai :houp ju slept :wel ^ — ai :houp 

81 'aulz :did nt distaab jti. ^ou, waz 8ast aulz 1 : ai :haad 9 

moust an'aajjli skrijtjti) ^ — it :sijmd ta -kam fram a trij dgest 

9ut:said moi idiidou ; bat ai waz tuw taiad far it ta :kijp mij 

wa.ild laif. 69 | 

Mrdk^ — Usaidz ', raafu Ca Und^n kaets -wan 3( U bf :dbj 
ta etiend 3lfn6ust '(rn]]?lq In Ca ru'ei 9v nokt^^al mjuwzjk. 
-kt t -teik 9 ;t99n in S9 ga^aiin iQ brekf^sl t TedL jet ', si 
f^d Uik u -Hj }d :gaaidn : ai ounll -k:)! 9 g^ims av It laai(l) 
nait; jfiw v ;got bmo fain irijz : idjdc 9 magniflsMit dm I; 
:)i nt -8aei Sa trij -wbta Bl aol woz :laa8 :iiait?: -when ai 
vhUa am av.n-inddu, ai :)nt at :S3 -«aiii)^ wh^ wfS loi} t?z 
bik a lueu. ye* ', -8d v got a nest In :£« :trij ; nf jfi laik, 
ai 1 Jou jfi 09 J3f) '2u1e sam dei. jes ', ai Jad laik ta si) 8nn : 
- ai m v«i1 -matf inirfnld In naetjara) binrL takb] a«- aulz, a 
Icjaariat :}rir} i^ncimd ifi a boi a^baui :hia. hij Uaund an aolz 
mett In a trij wi 6a jaij -wanz in U. b6u 1j tuk Sa :iai] :aiilz, 
an klaimd daun az faa«t az Ij kud % an djesi as Ij :got ta tb 
graund, Kl ould :aul -kdro baek ta 8a neEl ', an ;vbei] f(j 
:faund tSa )ai) -«'anz ad Ujn teikn, pj -meid a swuwp at Sa 
boi. 8a :boi pniw Im-telf 6ti b bxk an stak -ap Tz Sobnetid 
buwtt In 8a :wei kantri :boiz :duw -when -8ei :«oni ta dEfend 
Sain-selvz ', an 8I ould aul d»Ji a-grnst 8a aian a 8a buwts 
wfS taif (m Sat Jlj fel :daun stand ', an :>oa Sa :boi :got Sf 
ould :aul az wd az Sa jarj -wanz. :boiz 31 nt ta U aland ta 
teik )aij baadz ; :if -8ei :leik an eg :nao an :8en, -Bast 31 U U 
Inat je«', ai jiiw9(lj la :trai an Imprcti -8aet dn -Sta maindz 
'Whcn ai faatt -kfim hia ; bat ai miwd ;geiv It ap '^ it vaz 
noa )uwB ; 8a pijpl abaui :hiar :oun]i Uai* at jC -wben jfi 
:t3k av bjfiwmaenid : n riaii :))ii}k -Cej doun :nou wbot 8a 
;waad niijnz, 

a fain dog sSxt ! bat raa8a ss^ldj : :hau Ij -baakt at mij 
Laas nzlt I : hIj niall :bfouk Iz lft:'m :trai]i3 la get 9t mij. hIj 
))3t jfl war a trannp \ 6r a djaaman baend. jfi doun :mijn la 
:*ei jO -get <^atnan bacndz in tSIa autaSawei plcia f Nmi jes 
:aaniiaimz tuw 6 ;)9rij a wijk ; 6 :raaSa, wlj "jinrst La -haev 
8am: -8ei doun 'kam :nau; 8a dog ;kijps 8am 



waild laif. 

irsemps :tuw bai tSa dazn ; fSl at laasC taiga 'bit :' 
sins Sen wlj hasv nt -h^d a siijg! wan, 

ai ;sij jQw v ounli -waild flauaz In jo gaadn, jes \ :tS»t 
:wan oV mai fsnslz : ai doun k(a mat/ fa 'gaadn flauaz. 
dount maind a fjiiw ouldlsjand igaadn :flauaz in frant, -satj* 
az swijt pijz, dglreinjamz, tjuwjaz, :swijt wijjamz an sou 6n, 
bat 31 V ;meid Sa bsek -slmoust intaiall Tntii s waild :gaadn '. 
ik:Bept Sal ai -hfev 3 :fjuw forin (rabz. bat sam a :t5ouz 
ijrabz jii :sij t^^dr a sou naetj.irslaizd Sat jil ksn haadll 
;koI Sam forln : -^i grou w-aild In ment -paats av irigland, 
jes *, ai V :sijn rouda'dendranz ;grouii] waild In Sa njuw forlst, 
Sta, :]uk at -Sset baerjk av -foksglavz ' — wbot kan bl mas 
godgas ? -Cei 1 :gou on flausriij al J>riiw Ca sama. !n Sa 
sprii) :SEet ;baeT)k s :kav3d wiS primrouziz ' an kausllps ' an 
oksllps * an anemaniz ' an waild haiaslnjis. hiar ai v got a 
basijk av Bauarii] graaslz. nau ai ] J'ou ji3 mai -faangaadn ; 
ai bllijv ai v got evrl :faan Sat .-grouz In Sa brill/ ailandz on 
Sijz bserjks. whot s Saet'?: :iz It a faan? jes', it s 5l 
ozmanda rigeills, whai ', -Stet s koman bnekSn ! ; ai Jjot It 

ud nt grou In a gaadn. *ou, ai v got 'daznz av plaants 
;hia Sat a sapouzd not ta :grou In a gaadn. mous :pijpl doun 
:nou ;hau ta trsns'plaant : jilw kan trxns:piaant enl))li] \ az 
;!or) az jii dounl distaab Sa ruwts : :Saet s Sa houl sijkrit. 
av :k35, jii mas :^el Sa rait soil \ an Sa rail Ikspouga an sou 
on, an Stet s Sa :mous di/Iklt :paat av 1l ai ifaind Sat 
plaanis a dges laik lijuwman bijlgz : jii wont a :saain tEkt 
ta masnidj Sam. aaftar al, Sa z najsli) -maa bjuwtil San Sa 
koman meil ;faan. jes', an IL s -wan a Sa haad51st r It 1 ;grou 
enlwhEa. U s a greit advaanildg -hsevli) Sis :litl bruk; jilw 
:sij ai v :meid It Intii a :kaind av -maaj :loua daun, :sou 
Cat ai kan :grou evrl kaind av vataplaanL :SiJ£ fa-getmlno^ 
^ wrf fain. 

waild laif. 


-daz -Cset -wud blloij t jtiw ? jes ' : It s ounH 3 snttl ■ 
kops. 31 V got 9 psedsk 6n Si :atS3 :s3id (a Ss lissTz. -tSnt j 
rtmaindz mi '— :who da jii :aei til a 'raid raafw brekfast ' ?; 1 
si doun jiigk Tl 1 bl luw hot '. Sa z 'najili) si Jad laik bela *, 
:if jii kan :let m5 -liasv a kwaiat has : ai ra mot -niaij 3 
raida, and ai m aut av prjektls. d1 rail ' ; jQw Jl -haev navl ; J 
hlj z a stedJ :ould has * — a -beibl kad raid Im ' — worantid •] 
frij fram vais. tempar av a Ikih, an sekjan av a Blijmen3ln\ 
ai saipooz, IgzEektU sou ; hlz -greit :merlt iz Sat Ij neva /bIb 1 
at enljjlq ' — not :ijvn at a ■ track Jan ens^n ; hiz ounll folt JB I 
Sat !j z ;raaSa :givn la 'bailTrt ; bat jQ nijd nt bl alaamd: I 
hlj ounrs :baitg !n 3a steibl : -when Ij z gfit Iz braJdl 6n 1J S J 

wel, a jii redff ai doun :fijl kwail rait, fiu, ai "sij, j 
■stiraps a tuw lot) : ^Ifrld /I Jatn Sam a :li[l ' — Iz Sjet :rait? | 
jeE ' : It s al :rait nau. weit a ;inin1i : ai mas lailn msf '^ 
gaa}>s. ai ;sij navl z fre/a San ai )7at Tj w&z : jfi magi hould 
tei 'in a :bit gouli) ;daun hil; Caz a :lot av luws 'slounz 
abaut : hlj mait -kam daun. Jl wlj :get &n la Sa hai Toud 
:Buwn ? jes ', hia wTj aa. we! ', :whit[ :wei Jl wTj gou ' ? Bar 
iz nt :ma[J ijois ' : :Sis Iz SI ounll :dijiint roud Sar iz a:t)aut 
:hia, Ik:sept Sa :wan Sat gouz raund bai 'g^dbruke ^ — Sis 
:roud :1ijdz intii It ; Jal wTJ gou raund Siet wei, an beek :ouv» 
h»tjbari daun, sou az ta -gel a vjuw a Ca muaz ? jes ', 
:gou Siet -wet. 

'hallou'I maa sainz av ml-ai-zeijan I wbot a g^x^M 
kamaajal tnevl-a I d jQ :mijn Sa :iiuen Sat :(^es paaitt ac In 
Sa pounltra-p^ jes', Sset rlsplendant indlivic^al wiS 8a 
whail hxi ' an Sa velvit kout ' an Sa skaaKt (at : ai neva :t3 
salj a bletz av kab; It saatnll -daz navl kredit Sat l^tlul^Mwd 




7» waild kit 

'|ai 3t Im. ^Sset iz nC a ksmasjal tnevia ' ; It s sua 'dokta ; 
hij z kwait a djentlman \ :5ou jii ;wud nt ))ir|k b6u ta luk at 
Im, iz Ij an em dij ? ou nou \ Ij z ounR an em sij es '. 

pa :h3S :sijmz kwaist{. hTj z not sou kwaiat sz ij luks. 
hij gOTiz on d1 rait fa manjjs tageSa ', an :Sen sadnli -teiks a 
:fit sv vijasnis' — Jaiz at ialmoust evrlfili). bat Ij z mat/ 
:bela nau Can IJ -juws ta blj. far abaut siks man{)3 Ij :juws 
ta Jai regjalafi at tj^pmanz hset. ai dount wanda. ai did nt 
:maind It raidli), bat It waz raaSa akwad "draivlri : hIj :juwst 
ta bcek \ an trai ta ran -ap 5a b2er)k ; bat ai kjuad Im, :hau 
did ju m!enld3 <5aet * ? lou, ai :got t/Epmanz hauskijpa la 
lend mlj -wan av Iz ould lijets whail Ij w^z awei \ an taid it tii 
an ould fiflrjrod sou az ta dEggl blifor Iz aiz — . -huwz aiz ', 
t|sepmanz ' f nou ', Sa hoslz ; wel ', ai drouv Im ap an daun 
In 6is -wei In ifrant a Sa tjenjaad ', sn :sou ai kild tuw baadz 
wis wan stoun. bat ij neva got kwait juws ta Sa tsenjaad til 
ai sent ffilfrld ta -get a botl a Sa wata -Sei tten wlS ', an wojt 
Iz nouz wis It evrl dei far a wijk ; aafta Stet Ij did nt maind 
Sa :smel. 

Iz -Sfet kjuarias strakljar a 'paund ? jes S -Sset s Sa viUdjj 
paund. jii dount :sij meni a Sam nauadeiz. nou S an Sis 
-wan 2 -goulri ta ruwln laik evrljjlrj els abaut iiia. Its tjijf 
:juws :sijmz ta :bij ta :saav az a prop fa Sa villdg aidlaz ' — 
samjjlq ta lijn a-genst an goslp al :dei loi). jes ', If :wij wa 
ta kam ba;k Sis wei wlSin Sa nckst siks auaz, wlj Jad ;sij 
Souz :f>rij men launslij In Igziektll Sa seim jetitjQwdz \ an wlj 
Jad :sij Sset boi paatjt on Sa lop reil wIS Sa seim eva-laasilij - 
grin 6n Iz kauntlnans. daz nt Ij rlmaind jii av koulrldglz 
dlskripjan ^ 

■.tiz a puar idjat boi 
hiiw sits In Sa san S an twaalz a bau abaut ', 
hlz wijk aiz sijSd in :moust au'mijnli) tiaz. 

an :sou ij sits', sweili) iz kounbik hed ; 
an slisrir) at Iz bau fram mDn ta sanset, 
■siJ-SDZ I2 vois In Inaa-tikjuilt noiziz 1 

tk'sept Sat Sis ;boi isijinz ta -teik a maa tjiafl :vjuw av laif. 

:SEet s 9 fain :ould haus ! jes ', -Sset s gsedbniks :pleis. 
kEdbruk' ? nou *, ;gEedbruk * — wiS a dgij. :mas bi : 
■diemp :Sou daun Sta. jes ^ tt s bik ol :Sijz ould hauziz ; Si 
ould aidia woz ' : :faind Sa dijpist an dcemplst houl jfl ksen, 
an ;bild at So botam av It ; Sa z alwlz a puwl av wDia hhhs 
gEedbruka hal dar tn Sa winta. bat Jja :baus iz nt laik Sset '. 
nou "■, mai ;haus 5z al rait ' ; bat It s Si ounii drai haus In Sa 
houl :kanirl raund. ai h^d It :bi]t on paapas. Sa maen iiw 
-hted ISi ould :haus blfaa mlj daid av ruwma3tlk fijva *, sou ai I 
puld It daun, an bilt anaSa -wan haiar ap. | 

■hal^lou -Sta z g^edbruk Imselfl ■kjuariaslukli) nijen; 
isamjjlri In Sa glcedstan ;stail, jes ^ an ij z laik glaedsian In 
meni ;weiz : hTj -sez Sa :seim Igzjuwbarant vaitKKtl \ an Sa 
:seiinaiankonstT'tjuwJan'^;verl vaasatail :tuw^ — oltS] 
a vcrl rlmaakabl mten, ai idtasei Ij I ;kam raund Sis aafta- ; 

- 'nuwn : ai :so Im lukli) at juw ; Hj z alwlz intrlstid In njuw | 
pijpl. bat luk hia \ It s -getig leit : ai m afreid wlj /I bl leit I 

- fa lanJLif wlj gou bask :ouva Sa daunz ; praeps wlj d beta 
-gou bffik Sa wei wlj keim. at rait ' : ai m :getlr| :raatSa 1 

bai dgouv 1 Star a :Souz ]>n} men an Sfet boi stil Sta t 
jes \ an whot s maa wandafJ, stil In;geid3d In konva-seijan. 
iwhot on -aafi da -Sei :faind ta tak abaut ' ? :ou, matj 3a :3eiiii 
sabdglkis az landan :nien tak abaut In -Sta klabz. 

-raaSa sdF' — ^^^| 

' :hau d ju fijl ;aaf[3 jo "raid :jest3dT ' ? — raaSa e 
jes *, an soa tuw : ai kan haadll si daun, wel -tSen *, si :]?igk 
wlj d :bet3 glv ap 9U3r aiidia av draiviij O stokbndg ; s3:pouz 
«1j :gou far a stroul ouva Sa daunz V jes ', ai j'sd laik SeeE' 
— iSa z na{)li) ai Jad laik beta ; bat ai mas rait sam -letaz 
;faast\ if jii douni :maind weitli) haafan;aua. jiaw d beta 
kam Inta mai -den ; wlj /aant bt dTstaabd -Sta. bai t5a bai, 
:liia z sam 'sijRriwsks r jiiw d beta sijl -ap j6 Iclaz ; rai olwlz 
diiw. whai d jfl duw Sset * ? wel *, jii ;sij \ In a smal :pleis 
laik ?Sis Sa z a igndljl av kjuart-osltl abaut aSa :pijplz aftaz ; 
an wlj faind Sat : if wlj :dount sijl aua :letaz, -Sei -get oupnd 
at Sa poustafls. ai doun ^nou Sat -Sei eva -went sou faar 
az tfl oupn -enl letaz av 'main, bat sevral a\' mai saavants av 
kampleind av It : jai) wimTn dount ;!aik -hKvIi) -Sta lavaftaz 
takt 6v ol ouva Sa villdj, az :suwn az ai kan -get pozltlv 
pruwf av It, ai Jl rait ta S! ajioriilz \ an get -aa :taand awei. 
haa ? : Iz It a wmpan ? jes ' : Sta pj iz : Sea z Sa pousmis- 
, Irts baa-self, d jii :hia Sa dog :baakTij ? It s kjuarias hau 
tj heits :Bffit :wuman. nekst ta haar Ij -sez Sa greitlst aen- 
■tipa]jl ta -gEedbruk ; ai ;hjev ta itjein Im ap wheneva -Sei 
a:piar on Sa sijn. hiar a -tuw :letaz fa juw, an tuw njuws- 
peipaz fa mij. ;if jo redl, wlj 1 staat at wans *, bt:far It -gets 
:luw hot. 

a pritT kortdj -Sait 1 -Sset s sojaz :kotld5 ; If ju laik, jii 
kan :sij Si in^said. nouwan at houm lk:sept Sa beibl ; It s 
:kwait a piktja ;iz nt It ' — Sa kreidl bai Sa faia, an Sa big 
Jijpdog stret|t aut blsaid It. ai neva ;s3 sat| a primltlv :pleis 
bifar In mai laif. moust a Sa leibaraz kotldjiz a:baut ihia a 
:bilt In Sis ;staii : wan big rum wlS a stoun flar an a hjuwdj 
ijiranl. nou haa)>, ai pa:sijv; a faiar av logz 6n Sa bta . 

waild laif. 75 | 

- - fioa ; :who daz -Saet doa Llijd tu ' ? ; si s3:pouz -Sset s tSa 
■ bedrum. ou nou ', -tSci slijp In Sa bft \ ap stEaz ; Sset doa 
lijdz t3 Sa -dtart ; sop z betar of San jflw d (>iqk : hij -sez 
tjaadg a Ss ■faam wlj dges paast. :who d Jii ka! -Siet tEet)gld 
wildanls a faam ? wel ', It s goulfj TaaSar aut av kalflveijan 
bik a gud -men! a Sa faamz a:baul :hia ; -Sei ounll :kijp a 
;fjuw kauz -Sesf In Sa sama ; :m t5a winta -Sei briij ;daun ol 
5a ktell fram Si aSa ifaam :haiar ap in Sa vasli ' — It s tuw 
kould fa Sam -Star In Sa winta. wel \ wlj d beta bi muwvSij 
on: It a haaf :paas ten'— sojaz lan/taim. rif -Sei lanj at 
haaf ;paas ten, -Sei mast -jev brekfast pritT aalT. '■ou nou, 
-Sei neva -get ap Mifar eit. :when da -Sei dain -Sen' ? :ou, 
a:baut haar :paas twelv. who da -Sei -haev fa dina ' ? :ou, 
a hjuwdj mijt pai ', or a stjuw av tuw 6 ;J>rij difrant kaindz 
av mijt. Sen -Sei -hsev tij, an ofu a 'sekand ;tij \ an waind 
ap wTS a hevT sapa. -Sen ai sa:pouz -Sei dount -gel ta bed 
HI a:baut ilevn 6 twelv. *ou nou, -Sea :d5enrari In bed bai 1 
eit aklok ; on sandiz -Sei get -ap leita an gou ta :bed aalfa. I 
jii mas nt IimjedgTn -Star -al laik Sis : Sa ipijpl al Sa neksi 
:faam a kwait difrant: -Sei get -ap at faiv, an waak haad ol 
dei ; bat "Sei kam fram a difrant -paat a Sa kantrl. It s a 
kjuarlas )}iij, bat whcar ai waz steili] wlS a 'frend laast sa 
— :samwhtar in hsemjia'— hij :sed Sa pijpl a Sa vifidj wa 1 
sou leit av getlg ap In Sa monlij ; hlj :sed Sat kantrl :pijp! w»' 1 
:riaU mat/ leizia San taun :pijpl ' — at enl -reit in Sa -sau)) avi 
iggbnd. wel', fa wan ]j1i) -Sei neva wok, if -Sei kan helpl 
It' — . :hia z soja :kamTq houm tii Iz lanf. iwhta z tz waif'^1 
;ou, Jij z alwiz gtediq abaut an gosipiij wl Sa neibaz ' — 
til -aa maSaz, ai sajpouz; ai Jud nt wandar Tf soja :haed ta-l 
kulc iz oun dina. wel ', ai waz :sei)ij Sat kantrt .'pijpl nevaWB 
wak, nau Sis saja z a big, slroijluklg :fel6u ' — :Sou Ij iz nt T 
sou stroi) az ij luks' — , bat af jii wa tii aask tm U -s-itSA^EBti 

^^H has 
II ana 

waild la if. 

iriltdg ' — a litl :ouv3 tuw mailz ' — hij d Jjigk It Sa greiSw 
haadjip jfl iod posabli Tnflikt on im ; hTj d :teik a poul sz 
loi) az himself \ an stop ts si daun an groiin evri ten minlts. 
anatSa Jilq :iz :niaU al -Bta waak s -dan bai raajijnan :naua- 
deiz : in:sled av divelapli) -Sta masls bai ^TEepr) »1S a fleU 
an mouiri wiS a saiS, d! -Sei :duw 1z ta :wotJ a mafijn Sat 
-daz a! -ftta waak fa tSam. 

hia wtj aar on Sa top a t^a daunz. :whot a magniflsant 
vjuw I ; hau hai -aa wl ibia * ? a:baut aiks 6 sevn :handrad 
fijt ai sa:pous. :sou matj!; ai Jud nt av (lat it, weP, ju 
isij ', Sa houl kantri :laiz :pntl hai : mai haus tz a:baut foa 
:handrad fijt a-bav Sa sij. S Ea :sijmz raatj frc/a ap hia San 
daun in Sa vseli. :ou 'jes ; It s matJ draia', an jii dount -get 
-itet smel av dikeiiri vedjrleilan an stsegnant wata ; ai v afn 
:J>ot av :bildii) a haus :ap liia. sam dei -Sei 1 :bild a big 
h§utel iprasps. tSret s not :veri laikfi ; Jal wlj si daun :hiar 
an rest a :bit? nou Jjseijk jii. ou*, ai fagot; let s -gou on 
-Sen ; ai 1 leik Jii bsek ba mai feivrlt raf roud : jii :get a fain 
:vjuw a Sa muar d1 5a wei. 

ai 'tould jfi gasdbriik ad kal az :suwn az ij haad jti wa :hia; 
:who d jii Tpii^k av im V wel \ ij k -wan a Ea moust briljant 
an fEe_slneitii) ;men ai eva -keim akras: biz ;(lou av tak s 
■wandafl : hij 1 haadll -let jii -get a waad in eds^eiz ; huw 
iKset -jai) :reI6u ij ibrot wiS im ' f — klerikl ^ av kas, 
, -Saet waz belon \ Sa njuw kjuarit ; :who d jii ;ftii)k av 
■him'? 6u, ij :sijmz a -veri pleznt -jaq :fe!6ii' — veri zelas 
, sbaut iz pjerij waak ' ; bat it 9 a piti Ij z s6u an-nesisarili oili 
la ; :iz ij an okafad Lmjen ? nou *, kir)z kolidg. kiqz 
ikolldj landan ? jes. 

ia:pouz wij at ta ritoan igiedbriiks 'kal :suwn ' — :whai d 

waild laif. 771 

jiilaaf*? ou najili) * — al rait ' : ;let s -meik Si iksperimanl. 
whai iksperimant ' ? r :iz it salj a dtHklt 6 deinjares enta- 
praiz ? -juw p sij. d jfi mijn Ij wount bij at houm ? Sset 
dipendz on whol jfl "^mijn bai -bijli) at :houm. ai dount 
anda'stasnd. juw Jl sij. 

Se3 z -wan a jo djaaman bandz * — :whai k bHijv Jt 9 Ca 
veri -seim :wan ai sa rlaast jia at Sa :fut av snoudn '— Sa veri 
:laas :pleis ai Jad av IkspektTd ta mijt -wan 1 an nau !t -taanz 
ap a-gen In a stil imsr aulaSawei pleis ! jes ' : 5a seim 
aidentikl tjuwnz ; and ai nou -Sael spotifeist ;fel6u wl Sa bluw 
kaep az wel az :if Ij wa mai ouii braSa. it s not a bad laif 
fa ;Souz :fel6uz ' ; -Sei -hsev a pleznt holldl al Sa sama ' ; and 
In Sa winta -Sei sed daun ikamftabfi in sam laads taun ; :if 
jfi wa ta g6u ta baaja 6 tjeltn-am Tn 5a winta, ai dtasei juw 
d -hsev Sa :ple5ar av isijig jo spotTfeist frend agen ^ — ^ -Sei 
saatnii ar a -wandafl pijpl. jes ', -Sei isijm ta bi pupi) -Sta 
wei -evriwhta : al Sa "weitaz a dgaamanz nauadeiz. Sa weitar 
In 3a houtel at 'stokbridg waz a dgaaman. ai aast Im If -Sei 
d ;got -enl tabtekfiu ta ;meik siga'rets wifi ', an Ij :brat mij 
a dsaaman sigaar insted ; U riall :woz nt basd. hij aed Ij d 
pasweidid tSa mEentdga ta get Sam insled a Sa bi^H. iniVteiJan 
havienaz -Sei juws ta kijp, ai fad :kol -SiCt aut a 5a fraili]- 
poeo :inta Sa 'faia. ai m ^ounli telli) jfi wbot 'hij :tould mij '. 
al rail ', gou on '. wel \ Sis jai) felou toiild ml Ij waz Sa 
Ban av a treidzman in :sam -litl Ojaaman taun. hIj d kam 
Quva :hiaT az a weita ta iaan irjgllj'. hlj :sed a gud ;menl 
rlspektabl djaamanz did Sa seim ' — :wel edjukeitid :fel6uz 
[uw, :when -Sei v iaant I:naf irjgllj', -Sei gou baik ta djaamani 
an -get gud pleisiz jjrflw :noulij iijglij. Sis :jai] felou ikspeklld 
ta -get a gud pleis In a -bserjk -when ij went bsek ' — at :lijst 
y sed s&u. it :sijmz -Sei afn -meik a gud Jiiij av It bisaidz . 
daanli] :ii)gl!j' fa naf>li) : -Sei dount -get mat[ In Sa -■*«!. 'w* 

I 78 waild laif. 


^^W weid^z ' ; bat t5a tips -kam ta sam[;itj in Ss -koa av 3 jisr 

^^P wel ', d jti -fijl 'beta fa kollr) fin gsedbmk ? :wel, wlj -haev 

at lijst Sa SEells-fakJan av -hcevli) dan Sa karekt Jjitj. bat :who 

d jfl )jjr|k av aua rVsepJan ' ? ai kanfes ai -fijl :raa5a misfSfaid : 

juw rirj Sa bel, and at Sa Jiaad :rir) a :samwhot dlsrepjutabl- 

luklt) hauameid a:piaz; juwaasklfmlsta'gfedbruks at :houm, 

an rt:sijv an an'hezTteitlr| ajinsar In Si afaamatlv; wia /oun 

"" Inta ;whot ai asjuwm ta blj 8a greit :mEenz praivit den, 

^^H sasriktam, 6 stadl ' — whoteva jii :laik ta kal It ; :Sen -aaftar a 

^^^■'jnaloijd xbsans, Jlj rltaanz \ an Infamz as pj was misteikn : 

^^^p nilsta gsdbruk 1z 'not at houm ; juw kaamlt aask, ' :did Tj 

^^^ :tel ja ta sei sou Im'selff; iwhtarapon Sa gaal :b!aats aut ' jes 

sa ',' and Iz ilmiidgatll ouva-whelmd wlS kanfjuw5an ; wij iwak 

aut, an hia wl aar on aua :wei ta Sa daunz ' — ixra ai tfi 

anda-stcend Sat :Sis Iz tz jawgual :stail av rlsijvlri vizltaz ? Sset 

dipendz on huw Sa vizitar *iz. d juw -mijn ta :sei jii :gDu on 

-' asouJ)eitiq wl5 a ;mEen flw b'l:heivz In Sset -wei ? "ai :dount 

a:souj1eit wiS Im : "hij aisoujleita wlB 'mij ; bat ai kanfes It 

" :juws tii asgraveit mlj kansidrabll at :faast. jQw mas :nou Sat 

It waz Tntaiall J)ruw gEedbnik Sat ai ikeim an ;setld hia ' — In 

:fekt 1j piit a rgudljl av frendll -pre/ar &n mfj, wel ', wlj hsed 

nt bijn In Sa haus tuw deiz, -when gjedbruk kald wiS tuw av 

Iz dataz. It waz raaSar okwad, az wlj ha;d nt got al aua 

faanttjar In : wlj war In a moust afl -steit av kanljuwjan ' — 

Sa waz haadll rum ta si daun. haueva, wlj tnEenldgd ta ;get 

))li)z 'streit a litl an ta :giv Sam sam tij. hlj waz veri pleznt' 

— takt awei far abaut -tuw auaz. hau:eva mai waif tuk Sa 

greitlst dislaik tii Im ', and ijvn :went sou faar az ta sei Ij waz 

nou djendman', whitj :sijmd raaSa bouldS kan:sidrti) Ij 

bousts Sailz fEemili z :bijnln Sis :pleis fa maa San faiv :handrad 

■ ^az. tuw deiz aafta, til aua saprais, ij :sent iz waif ta :kal on 

waild laif. 


3S. wtj :raatS3 pifid -aa : /ij did m :si]m ivert haepi abaut It. 
3z suwn 3z wTj d got Sa 'haus !n ods, wij rttsand :tSijz kalz. 
wlj W3 tould Sat :naiS3 mista n6 niisTz:g£Bdbruk warathoum, 
a fatnait aafta gasdbruk kald wiS jag belou, Ss kjuarit, nekst 
wijk ai kald bai maiself , an waz lould ij waz not at houm. 
[uw man])s aaflar ij kald witS ijsepmsn. -Sset wsz a:baut faiv 
:jiaz agou. ai nau :kal fa Sa fiaad ; taim * — wlS juw * — an fa 
Sa jiaad :taim rfaind Ij z not at houm. whai \ 6a ;felou mas 
Mj a 'regjala 'kaed I— or els reivlij mfed'. ''ou nou : hij z not 
a bffid :fel6u m Tz wei ' ; ai :raa5a '■Jaik Jm ; hij z <Sa fainlst 
speslmTn ai eva njuw av Sa pjuaR Iinpalslv tempramant 
kamjbaind wiS atalT an*kon|as cgGtizm. wel *, ai neva waz 
sou kamplijtK :teikn in in mai laif; ai Jiat ij waz a -farari gud 
fel6u ; hij waz sou "frendli, an rsijmd sou ierijas ta -meik mai 
akweintana. jes \ bat ;if jii Jiirjk av it, ij :neva wans :afad jii 
-eni kaindnis 6 hosprtseliti ; :ijvn -when jii :3ed jilw d laik ta 
:sii -Sset -bijni in Iz haus wlS :whot Ij :kalz Sa ruwnlk inskripjan 
on it, Kj neva :sed ij houpt jijw d -kam raund an sij it \ or 
ienijiiij a Sset :sat ; an :when jii :s€d jii wa :fond av fipi), !ilj 
nevar :Dfad ta :let jii :fij in Iz slrijra, ;Sou ij neva :fijlz Jmself, 
an Sa :fij^i] ad :riall bij tmpruwvd if :sara a Sa big fij'wa :teikn 
aut. bat 'whai waz ij sou srjjas ta -meik mai akweintans 
-Sen ' p — ai kaant meik it aut. kjuart;os5ti » — na|)ii) els : hij 
d haad av jQ, an .'wontld ta ;aij whot jQ wa laik. az suwn az 
iz kjuari:ositi waz sretisfaid, hij :woniid la -get rid av jii ', an 
-haev nou -maa boSa wi6 jii. kanfaund Sa :fel6ul; ai |ad 
ilaik ta kik im I Sset wiid nt :duw eni gud' ; ij wud nt 
anda'staend wh6t jii ment; an bisaidz', ij d bi :raaSar an 
akwad 'kastama ta kik : hij z an'komanli taf. bat ai wanda 
Sa pijpl abaut ihia 'stEend -Sast -kaind av :]ni) I -Sei ;kaant 
'help Sam-se!vz : :whot kan jii sei 15 a :mEen iiw livz in satj a 
:haus az SegI ' ? jiiw v nou aidia :hau Sa tuwnvt ^c^vj^j' 


a reilwei Ikskasjan. 


ouvaroz Sam. av ikas it iz nt a truwnlk Iniskripjsn alal' 
Sset daz nt -meik -em difrans; bat siariasll', It s a greit 
misfatjan far a irnjen a Sset ikxrikta ta H :eibl ta ^ilei traut 
a-maij tSa minouz wlS Tmpjuwniti. hlj :sijmz ta gou on ?B 
igzaekt opazit av Sa niKksim noubles oblijs- prisaisli s5u ; 
and Lol Ca :whail 1j dlvauUi Wijvz ij z :duwli) iz best ta kijp af 
Bi Impendji) reva'ljuwjan. 


e reilwei Iksksajsn. 

who da j6 duw wiS ja-self on sancliz ' i : juw mas faind it 
■raaSa dal :livir| hiar al ba joself, ou ', :when it s fain, ai 
d5enral! gou ;aut av taun on :sandi : ai -teik Sa trein a:baut 
ten 6 twelv mailz :aut av landan, an wak ant ta sam pleis 
-whsar ai kan -get a trein bsk. It s -raaSar okwad :samtaimz 
bi:koz 3ar a sou fjuw treinz on sandiz. si rimemba wans ai 
waz aut fa Sa dei wi(5 a lot a felouz, an wlj mist ana wei 
isam^u -getii) ta 6a sleifon ' — ai raaSa fjiijk wij went ta SSa 
Toq steijan \ an sou -ha;d ta :gou ta S aSa -wan ' — :enihau. 
djest az wij -keim ;ap ta Sa steijan, 6a pata /at Sa dor in aua 
feislz. htj mait ijzl-i av -let as in, fa 3a trein did nt staat til 
tuw :minits aafta : ai sa;pouz '} ment It az a :kaind av prasktikl 
dgouk. emhau. It waz Sa laas trein \ an 5a waz :nou help fr 
It : wij hffid ta wak houm. ihau faa waz It ^ ? fatijn mailz. 
wel \ Sset :woz nt mat/, 'nou, bat wij d alTedl :w3kt niaB 
Jjaati mailz. ai did nt -get bonm til nia wan ', an sam av as 
•hied TaalSa ta gou. wan :jar| ifelou waz kamplijtll :nokt ap : 
ai bi:l)jv Ij :hjed ta :lai In -bed far a dei 6 :tuw. ai waz man Sa 
waas far It. wel *, whitj 'trein Ja wij gou bai ta:mor6ii ' ; 6az 
wan at nain, and anaSa at haaf rpaas twelv 6 twelv :]Ja3t1 faiv 
— ai faget whiij, wij d beta -teik Sa nain -wan ', If it iz nt 

a reilwd ikskasjan. 8i 

t8w asB fa jiiw. it iz raaSar sail ; bat it kaati bi helpt 
mas -teik a kseb :if ai m :iiot ap tn Ltaim. -Sen It s setld Sat 
wla ta mijt at Sa steijan at nain ei em ta;morou mDiili)^? jes', 
ikLSept Sat Sa z :dou a:kei3an ta :sei maniij twais ouva. twais 
0UV3 ' : :who da ju mijn ' p :whai ju -sed ei em an tamorou 
manlij : ei em an maniij :mijn Tgzaektli Sa seim ]>iij, Ik;sept Sat 
wan z -laetln an Si aiSaz 'iijgWf. :hau d ju -meik aut Sat ei 
em z Iffitin * ? ; ai doun lywjk an einjant rouman ad anda'stffind 
jQ If jii -sed ei em ' : Mj d anda:stDeiid Eenil "mt-ridjem :kwik 
loaf, bat not ei em. jo tuw krifikl. wel \ juw blgsen It. 

hia jii aa ' 1 ; :hau doq ay jfi bijn Ma ' ? abaut tuw minlta. 
:whot s Sa taim'?: ai m afreid mai'wotfiz roq. !tsigz£ektH 
eit minits ta nain. -Sen ai m faiv :minits faast ; mai wotj 
stopt at haaf :paas siks Sis manii) ' — ai sa:pouz ai fagot ta 
:waind : ap daaa :nait ' — and ai mast av set !t roi). wel^Jts 
beta Can -h;evir| It slou. aa, -Sta z 6a tikitpleis ;oupn : Jlai 
-get JM jtikit tuw? jes*jif jii wil'. whitjklaas^? :ou, seknd 
si sa;pouz. Lwhot s Sa .-gud av :gouir| sekand' ? : -ai alwlz gou 
faast 6 )3aad* — idsenjafi {laad : Sa laaa laim ai :tnevld seknd 
Sa wa tuw flaqkiz an a leidizmeid In Sa :kKridg, and at Sa 
neks tsteijan Sa waz a raj" av betlqmen an kaad/aapaz, al 
mar 6 des draajk. sou ai got aut at Sa neks steijan an got 
Intu a Jjaad smoukiri ' — sam vert ;gud felouz in it. wel -Sen 
:let It bi ]>aad : it s al Sa :seim ta mij. ai sa:pouz wlj d beta 
:not :teik ritaanz; wij 'mei wont ta kam biek -sam aSa wei. 
jes', beta :teik sirjgl, luwj^aadz daunfad ! rStaan'P nou\ 
sirjgl. hia z j6 tikit ' ; ai sa:pouz Sis iz Sa ;said fa daunfad.. 
wel, -Sei :sijm ta bi al -goulq :ouva la Si aSa :said. ai f aaak 
-Scet pata ; jes ', ll s Si aSa ipJEetfam : wij mas ■" 
brids. ai -raaSa laik Sis ', -haevt" 
■hal'lou, :whEa z mai amba-- 
jGw d beta :luk /aap': 



82 9t '^3 sij said. ■ 

■Btaatid bsi t!is taim, hisr it iz J : si d :left it In Ss bukTgofts. 
whai da -Kei rksl it ■buklrjafls ' ? It :kamz fram 3i ouid 
■koutjii] deiz -when -6ei :jiiws tii enta jo iieim In a buk. ^ou 
-jes, an Sset 3 whai -Bei tak av -bukir) far a steifan in-sted av 
:teikli) a tikit lor it. in Sa seim wei -8ei juws ta ksl 6a 
kaeridsTz ■koutjiz : Sa 'faast reilwei ksertdgiz war Tgzskt 
■iml-tei/anz a tS ould 'steidg ■kouijiz. nan wiar af at -laastl 

Iz Sis ana steijan ? nou ', wij doant 'stop :hia : Sis Iz 3 
faas itrein. hau -meni :ma steijanz hsev wij ^ f luw ', ai 
:Jiii]k. whot sleijan z Sis'? it s -sam njuw rsteijan : -fatlskjuw 
■paak ai )>ifjk -Sei kol It, hia wTj aa ' ; Sis iz daunfad. ai m 
glsed ta hiar it : ai Jal bl glsd ta -get aut, an stretj mai -legz 
3 :liU. :whot s Sa mseta ' ? ai ijiat ai d last mai 'tiklt ; ai -hsed 
it In mai hasnd -al Sa :taim ; bat :whEa z mai amba-rela ' ? 
wh6t av jG last it a-gen'? ai -mast av :left it in Sa trein. 
Jal wij gou bEek for it ' ? It s tuw leit nau ' : Sa trein z -gan 
on. wel, wij 1 :meik -ap ana maindz ta :kani :b£ek hio ; -prEcps 
-Sei 1 av famid it In Sa kserids. wij mait az -wel av -teikn 
ritaantikits -aaftar ol. it daz nt mEeta ' : wTj Jud nt av 'seivd. 
-eni})iq bai it'. 

et Sa sij said. 

ihsed nt ju ; beta -get ap-nau'P: it s -getlrj leit, ;hEV jfi 
:adad brekfast ? jes. tSset s :al rait ; ai 1 bi daun in ten 
minita. :when wij v -hjed brekfast, wij I gou aut n :luk fa 
Iod5ir|z : ai m afreid Sis houtel 1 bl :raaSar ikspensiv. 

a jii redi ? ai Jl bi :redi in a minit ; ai v ounli :got ta -get 
mai buwts on. ai :wanda :whitj iz 5a wei ta Sa sij ; Sis mas 
:bij it *, ai :)3ii]k, Sta z Sa sij ' — whai wla kwait klous tS it I 

3t ^3 sij said. 

-5£3r 3 ssm bouls ; :who da jfi :sei tii a rou'f; seiKijboutB 
luw ; -let s :gou far a seil ! wlj :haev nt taim :nau : wlj v got 
ta :faind lodsTijz ; wij mei az -wel -hEev a beiS tSou ' : ■Beet 
wount teik lor), "ai Jaant beiiS : It s tuw kould fa mij. wel ^, 
luk his ' — ai 1 beiS, an juw Jl gou an ;!iik fa lod5Tr)z * — juw 
anda-stasnd Sset ikaind av ;Jjirj beta San ai duw ; juw I faind 
mlj hia -when ju :kam bask. 

:hau did ju :laik jo beiC?: waz So wota worn? nev3-ha:d 
a beta beiS In mai laif ; 5a wata waz raatSa kould, bat ai dount 
:maind tSret. wel, ai v got sam nimz for as In SeeI lit! haus 
■ap :?5Ear on 6a terls ; f>aat1 :JilIgz a wijk, nou ekstraz, nou 
-aSa lodgaz, nou tjuldran, paaflkt kwaiat insaid n autsaid Sa 
haus. jiiw V bijn a loij ;taim abaut It '. jes \ ai kud nC -get 
awei fram Si ould wuman ' — JIj takt sou ; Jlj :sez wlj kan kam 
in whenieva wlj laik ; 5a rumz ar al red!. -Sen wlj 1 :gou 
-Star in t5i aafta'nuwn. ai houp Sa :pijp! ar onist : ai kaan 
■bEa ta b( al:wiz saspektlq pljpl. d jQw rimemba 'smilis stDriz 
av Iz Ikspiarianslz In sijsaid lodjiqz ) nou \ :whot woz it ^ ? 
wel \ on wan 3:kei5an ij -sed dauts a tK onlstl av Iz Isenleidl \ 
sou Ij bat a paund av lij, an piit haaf av it in Sa kabad ; 51 
aSa :haaf ;paund Ij kept lokt ap in iz raitly)desk ^, an :nieid Iz 
tij wits II ' — hlj did nt :juwz fia tij In 5a kabad atal. \¥el ^, at 
51 end av a fatnait hlz li^nleidl :keim tii im lii rlmaind im Sat 
Iz tij waz niaH al dan ', an tS aask If pj J'ud nt -get sam maa 
for Im, sou Ij :sed ' *ou :mislz braun ^ — 6 whfitevar -aa neim 
w6z ' — ' ai V :meid "mai tij laast logga San jaaz : ai v stii got 
a kwatar av a paund left,' ana5a taim IJ borfiud sam 
dikEentaz av Iz Isenleidi ta :put sam wain In 
Insted a Siet Ij kept 5a wain In iz patm 
neks a 5a dlkxntaz ta 5a kijhoul a 5a I 
:when Jlj oupnd It ta :get at 5a w; 
dik^ntaz aut a 5a kabad :on ta 5^ 




84 3t Sa sij said. 

la pijslz. 31 f'iijk smip ;mast av bijn -raaSar an'fotfaiiil In 
ipijpl Ij lodsd wis — "ai v alwlz ;faund Sam onlst i:naf. :pneps 
:SiJ2 stariz ar Iz oun Invenjan. -Bst s not atol an-laikD, 

ai sei, ai fljl afl-l leizl raafta mai beiJS sn Stet gud lanj -Sei 
geiv 3s at Ci outel ' ; ai Jad bl afl-l greitfl If juw d gou bak ta 
■Si outel, an sij abaut nmwviij aua Jjigz ; an ju mait ada tij at 
Sa seim laim ' — ai safouz wlj Jl hsev ta gou in far aafi dinar 
an faivaklok 6 siksakiok tij * — an tel mislz whotsaneim ia:get 
a :pot av raazbii dgajm ', an sam Jrimps ' — ai Hev nt -hsed a 
Jrimp tij far eva sou :\oi) ", not sins ai :juws ta todl a-kras 
grinidg paak wiS mai naas ' — o beta stil sam pranz ; jes \ tel 
aa ta -get sam pranz. it s raaSa kuwl av nilj :putlr| evrt])"(i[ 
on juw laik Sis, bat ai "nou jii doun maind '. wel \ ai 
promTst jo maSar ai d :luk aafta jii, an sij tSat jii did nt ijt 
enijitri Sat disa'grijd wiS jfl ; ai doun :nou whot Jij d sei ta 
raazbrt djeem an Jrimps S5u, 

:ou, hia jii aar ; ai kud nt faind jii : ai v setld evrijjfi) at 
namba faiv. hav jii adad tij ? jes \ at haaf :paas faiv ; jij 
:sez pranz a not ta tii got ; Jij 1 trai an -get sam jrimps, bat 
evftjiiri in Sa :wei av (iJ ;get3 sent ap ta landan ^, sou jii kaag 
get -enl an;les jQ luk Jaap. Sset rimaindz mij : huw d jii 
ijiigk ai sa idses :nau'? huwV Jaap an trevislok ; -Sei 
keim daun 3a dei bi-faa jestadi \ whitj hrepnd ta bi baijk 
holidt. Jaap s In a greit reidg abaut It : :sez ij -heits Sa :plei3, 
an i neva -kam hiar agen, ai wandar Ij eva 'keim :hia '-—a 
misn'Jjropikl, an-soujol ifelou laik Siet. on It waz ol tsevlstoks 
:duw1r) ; hij (Klaits In a kraud \ an Sa maa raudi an ksedij Sa 
kraud iz, Sa marij z plijzd '^hij LSez ij -kz an-baundd'feiji 
In Sa fjuwt/ar av Sa britij dimokraai, It s kjuarlas Sat Souz 
tuw Jad bij satj" gud frendz ', an ;jet -Sei neva ;sijm tii agrij ; 
taevlstok abjuwzlz Jaap, an ;sez Ij z a retpd :ould tart 
aristakrEet^, an Jaap kalz tsevistok a sjuwpa'fijal, jEel5umaindid 

n t^^^ 



opfimlst. Bs kjuarlaa :))iij iz Cat tjevTstok s :ri3lj matj imor 
3v an sristakreet San Jaap : ai H;lijv ij bI:logz tii a veri :gud 
femtli. It W3Z amjuwzlij la :hia Jaap :t3klq av -Ssar advenfaz 
on mandl : hau toevlstok -meid frendz wiS evrlbodlS an tjaaft 
5a gaalz \ til at ;laast ij irauzd Sa djelasi av iSta jar) men ', 
an -Sei :hEed regjalalt ta 'fait -Sta wei ]3rflw a sySlij maa av 
leriz : jfiw kan imEdsin hau plezot :d1 Bis woz fa Jaap *, a 
iniEen uw stsendz on iz digrtti ^, an heils famili-asrltl ; Jaap 
:sez Sa honl bijlj waz kavad wiS ormgpijl an grijzi peipa Sa 
neks dci ; hlj :sez tffivlatok stil rt:teinz Iz bjlijf in Sa fjuwtjar 
av briOJ (Emokrasl ai Jad ;laik ta sij Kevlstok' — :aa -Sei 
gouir) ta stop :hia lot) f -Cta ;gouir) a;wei tamorou ; bal a 
aast Sam ta :kam :in an ;hffiv -tij wiS as Sis ijvnii). SEt s . 
rait : .-when did ju :tel tSam ta kam ^ ? abaut faiv. wel -Sen ', 
wlj d beta bl .-gouiij btek ', 6 -Sei 1 bl -Sta bifar as. 



IV edjii-keijan ' f — ai Jad 
a steitid : ai haev nt i 

:whot a jo :vjuwz fin Sa :sabd3ikt a 
bl glsed ta hia Sam. wel \ -Sta veri :f 
-eni ataL jia Juall doun mijn ta sei Sat jiiw v neva givn 
moumlnts fiat ta Sa moust impatnl fektar in Sa fjuwtja 
divelapmant a Sa hjuwman reis? sa:pouz jQw -h^d tjuldran 
av j6r oun * — d jiiw mijn ta sei Sat -Sia fizikl, moral an 
inti-lektjiial divelapmant ad bij a:m£elaravEebsaljiiwtlndifran9 
Ltuw ju ? av ;kas ai wij ta :sij mai ;fel&a krijtjaz hel()i In bodi 

an maind iraaSa San wiik 
Sat ai donn :]>ii)k 
nou juws tijid 

— ;whot ai :mijn ta sei iz 
duw wiS it : it s 


tfuldranz houmlaifs an'helj^i an vijss; an nou aimaunt av 

kriemTi) tSa maind I -meik a stjuwpid :boi kleva' — in ;fEekt it 1 
-liEBV igzaiktli 3l 'opazlt Ifekt. mai faaSa waz a doktrrnea 
d5es laik juw — . ai m -noi a doktrVnts. wel ', ;enihau hlj 
-sed stroij vjuwz on Sa jsabdgikt av edgu-keijan. -hiz ai:di3 
:woz ISat nou :hjuwnian :bijii) z nffitjsral! aidl \ an tSat if jfi 
wans ;faind aut whot ijij -wan -hiez a spejal jeptitjuwd foa, 
an set tSam tG tt, -tSei i -gou on a tSamselvz, ai 'kwait agrij 
wfi5im : ?fi ounll -difiklfi iz ta :faind autCijz spe/al astrtbjfiwts' 
— ai ;mijn Eeptitjiiwdz. prfsaisR b6u' — mai faaSa poi Ij d 
diskavad Sat 'mai rspe/al :Eepfitju\vd waz tSa ;stadi av iqgTlJ 
litratja av Sa se^Titijnfi senfari. az Sis waz iz oun spejal hobi, 
hlj waz dilaitld w!iS Iz dlskavari \ an metd mij :fijl Sa weit av 
it ; 5a rizalt iz Sat ai -h£ev a paafikt heitrid av iitratja '^ — 8a 
:vert -sait av a voljam av miltn 6 kauH 6 dreitn -meiks mij il. 
jes\ Si ounli ditratja ju :sijm tu aprijjieitiz Sa pelmel badjil 
an Sa fijld. kam \ ai :rijd Sa oifega'zijnz :samtaimz '. ju 
: mijn, ju :liik at tSl iia-strei/anz in haapa ', an :rijd a gous; 
stari :nau an :Sen. it 1 ;pneps reiz mi jsamwhot in jor 
apinjan if ai tel jii Sat ai riali tfik a igudijl av intarest in 
ed5ii'keij'an tuw rjiaz agou ; ai ;ij™ -went s6u faar az tfl 
oda haabat spensar on edgil'keij'an. a frend av main hiiw z 
an aadnt spenaarait waz horastrak at mai sflwpafi|al :wei 
av aproutjiq Sa sabdgikt^ an :sed ai ot nt ta -Jjigk av irijdiij 
Si edgii^keijan an:til ai d maastad faast prinsiplz. Si end 
av it :woz Sat ai investid in a kamplijt set av haabat 
spensaz waaks * ; bat ■an'faljanalll ai stak faast in Sa 
midl a Sa faast t|septa av faast prinsiplz ; sou av :kas ai 
neva got ta ISi edgu'kei/an atal. Cta -Sei aa '— Sa houl 
siarTz ' — kamplijt waaks av haabat spensa ' — :on a Jelf al la 
Samselvz : ai ;h:ed it piit ap 6n paapas. wel, Sar a sam 
■ ,.:points on whitj ai doui] kwait agrij wiS spensa maiself * — , 

edju'keijan. 87 

^xj)ks \^A raaSa mot :hiar -eni kritisiznoz tli ai v red Sa 
:buk maiself : si dount wont ta 'baias msi maind m enl :wei. 
31 m afreid tt s maa wont sv intsrest in Sa sabds'ikt SSan !av 
av Impaap-ieliti ' ; bat ai kaant anda'sts^nd hau enlwan Gw z 
wans -teikn an nnCarest In edsii-kei/an kan eva luwz i[. 

:sins ai :so ju laast, ai v 'red -Saet :buk on edgu-keijan, -whot 
bukfin edsii'keijan^? haabat spensaz ; it s -.o] nonsansabaut 
jo hasvlq ta :rijd faast -prinsaplz ifaast. ai red It )jruw, an 
anda-Btud evri waad : it s :d1 az kliar az kan bij. ai agrij wiS 
al 5j sez \ ispe/all abaut 'fizlkl edjQikei/an. whot ai -speJaK 
indjoid ar iz hits at ana-mentl skolajlp. hia z 5a :psesid5 ai 
:mijn ' — peidg sevn-tijn : ' :inen iiw d 'blaj :if :k3t seiiij 
ifl;d5ijnja in:sted av ifldsT-naia, 6r ad fizent az an -insalt ;enl 
inipjil:teijan av ignarans r(:spek(iij t!a feibld leibaz av a feibld 
demigod, :Jou not tSa slaitist Jeim In kan:fesli) Sat -tSei dount 
:nou wbta Ba juwsteikjan tjuwbz -aa ', :whot a Si askjanz a Sa 
Spain! kad ', :whot s Sa naml :reit av pal'seijan ', an ;hau Sa 
■laqz ar infleitid * ' — an sou on. bat "ai :neva haad a 5a 
jiiwsteikjan tjuwbz, did juw ? ai kanfes ai d fagotn :dI abaut 
Sam -when ai faast ;red spensaz buk ; sins 5en ai v got -ap 
mai fizi.-oladji a-gen. :wel', whot aa -5ei -5en^? ai m 
a/eimd (a sei ai v fagotn agen, tSI ounii :]iii) 5at bo5az mij 
:iz, :wheSar it s matj gud raitiij abaut edsii-keijan. it sijmz 
ta mij 5at 5a -rial difiklti :iz, not ta -non whot s rait, bat ta 
■duw it, ;when ai waz a boi, ai waz tould ouvar an ouvar 
agen Sat :if ai lei on 5a wet graas, ai |ad :get 5a ruwmalizam 
;when ai :got oulda ; an nau ai -hsev it regjalali evri winta ' — 
ai -ha;d sam twinjiz 5v It laas nait. -nau ai doun nou Sat ai 
:eva -kwestjand 5a ifcekl Sat ai Jad -get ruwmatizam ' — ai 
simpli did nt kca. 5a fskt i a ban pruwdnt, 

rdgesl az a8az a ban rek " kaant -olta 

-Sta neilja bai prijtjti) t ■Sit,-*, 


88 soujallzm. 

edgii'kei/an ^d wask mJrlklz ' : it s inaf ^tH^^^p^ 
tjaans av :duwTi) whot 3 rait an rijzn-abl. bisaidz S ju faget 
Cat It s :paat o Sa ibiznls av edgii'keijan ta trein :pijpl ta 
hiebits av faasait n ■selfri-streint. -5;et s dgest whot m daut 
■whetSar It kan duw, at :enl -reit ai m saatn juw d av bijn 3 
beta imsen in evrt rl:spekt, if jo faat5ar ad edjukehid jQ on 
apensaz prmslplz. :veri laikli ; bat ai m afreid ai Jad av bijn 
iraaCsr a "prig ' — ai Jad av bijn -tuw paafikt. 

soujallzm. ^^M 

hia jii aar, -aaftar ol I gl^ed ta faind jii at houm. :whot 
:meid Sam sei jii waa nt at houm * ? ai -tould Sam ta sei a6u. 
ai 'sei, bat Iz :Sis kansistant wl tSa prinslplz an ka;riktar av a 
ridjld moraHat? :wel jii -sij ai m afl-l bizl, an ai dotint wont 
ta -hsev a :lot av aidl feloiiz ikamTij in -o\ :dei, an weistiq mai 
laira wlJS gosTp. :ou nonsans ^ : rdag jii gud. bat jii saatnli 
luk bizl : jo 'berid in buks * — buks on Sa teibi, buks on Sa 
tjiaz, buks 5n Sa flaa, paild ap ta Sa sijliij i :let s luk at am. 
■hal'lou, :whot s Sis'? — 'efjiks av -soujalizm, kwiiriesQS av 
soujallzm, 'kietlkizm av soujalizm, "primar av soujallzm '^- 
:whot s :3l Sis ' f -hal'lou, :hia z a jiRr| "Joka — ^Sst s mar in 
■mai :lain'— lukiq brek'— ai ]?at jii dis-paizd hjuw konwi'p 
;whot -jez luklt) hsik ta duw wiS hjuw konwi ' f— It s a 
soujalist ^ramffins~:bai an amerlkan '^ -ijebmi. ai ''sij, 
ai waz kanfaundig It wiS -kald bffik. bat whot s :al Ss 
nonsans av soujallzm ' ? ; jii doun :niijn ta ;sei jflw v itaand 
souJaEst ? -SEEt 3 dgest whot ai 'duw -mijn ta :sei ; ai nau 
gbrl 5n Sa ;neim av soujalist az ;matj az ai famali ab'had an 
dispaizd it. -Sen ai sa:pouz ji3 :gou in fa houm ruwl :tuw ' ? 

sou/alizm, 89 | 

:ou, si V -got 3 loq -wei bijond houm ruwl !n Sa laas :tuw 
wijks : t3 mij a msen uwz vjuwz a baundid bai Loum ruwl iz 
nt matj" :m3r advaanst San an ouldfejand tori. :wel \ jii -aa 
:gouii) ahed : jor a mous promlslrj souJaHst beibi ', kanisidriij 
jor :0Tinli tiiw:wijks ould; bat hau abaut eza'terik 'baiSzinan 
]3lj;osaf( ' ? : a man]j 6 :tuw agou ai rriaK waz afreid jii wa 
-gouTij 'mted ;ouvar It laik pua -snaip. :hau 'iz :pua snaip * ? : 
ai ;ha3v nt haad av tm far eva sou dor). :ou ij z :ni3ll rikavad 
:nau; hy z :teikn la stsempkBlektiij * — Sa dofcta sez it I :bij 
Ca SEei'veiJan 6v im \ :if Ij 1 :ounH stik tfl ft. at preznt ij 
)jii)ks av najjiri els : hij :sez 8a spirits ma nep ol dei loq an al 
■nait :tuw az haad az -tSei laik * — 'hij daz nt :kEar a Tiep far 
am. bat spiritrrepii) -sez najjiri ta iduw wiS fjljbsafl '. ;ou, m 
jksipekt '>} z :got a -litl mikst : jii :nou ij brgaen wltS \ 
spiritjuallzm, and rounil -went ;ouva ta ])]josafl bi:koz Tj waz \ 
nou gud az a • ;Si»t s laikli inaf; ai :dour| kia 
-matJ abaut it ; ai v :dan wiS bou[i a Sam *— ai :faund Sa 
houl Jjii) an Infaanl swindl, hau did jii :kam ta :giv it ap ' ? 
jii war az fill av injJuwzlEezm az kad bij : jii tould mij siaiTasli 
jii wa rgDuTi) ta :bij a 'tlijla 6 'tleila ', 6 whoteva jii kal It ; an 
Sat jii ikspektid ta blj a -guaiii In :kas av taim, wTS Sa tjaans 
av sara :dei bijiij a plsenitri spirit ' — a -dEen -tjaboun ai J)ii)k 
jii kold It. ju wontid 'mij ta :gou in fr it tuw ; an :when 3i 1 
aast hau lot) ft ad teik, jii :sed a miljan av ianz ; an :when si I 
:aast hau -matJ an 'ian :woz, jii :sed an in'k^elkjalabli loq J 
piariad' — Toiljanz av jiaz; sSu ai :geiv ap JSI aidia ^ — whot 1 
:meid -juw ;giv It ap ' f :wel, ai doum :maiod teliij jii '—It 1 I 
bij a rilijf la :meik a klijn 'brest av It ' — bat j2 mas swes 
solamll not la "tel lenlwan. ai 'swca. wel -Sen \ It :keini 
abaut in Sis -wei. :when ai faast :]jal av djoinii) Sa braanj • 
lijg -Sei d idjeat IstKbRJc -hiaj ai felt sam dauis -rez ta :wheSar 1 
ai waz spiritjijall dSvelapt l:naf. bat az tsiitra «i. 'sr.^Ss^i.' - 

90 soujallzm, 

jiiw nou bedlou, iiw msnidgaz Sa liJR -his' — az :suwn 3Z HJ 

:faund ai :tuk an intaresl In tSs ;J)ir), hlj prest m!j :veri wamli 
13 dsoin tSam '—in rfsekt 1j wonrtd mTj ta :teik sn ouj) streit 
3f\ hlifar 31 riall :njuw enij^it) abaut !t. hij :sed ai -hsed a 
veri rlmaakabl spirltjual divelapmant ; an whot plijzd mij 
moust av al, htj -sed Ij :}30t ai waz a fiffi raunda. :whot on aaj> a 
Kset'?; :ou, si rJmemba Jo teHi) mlj :s\ abaut It: it -h£Bz 
:sainj)iq ta duw wl 8a pljenTtri tjein ', :h£ez nt it ' — iji/ raund 
korl-sponiBri tQ a steids In 5a dlvelapmant a 5a hjuwman 
reis ■■ p Jes "•, Saet s abaut it ^- — aiv lalmoust fagotn It mai:self. 
al ai rimembar :iz Sat ij meid aut tSat whail Sa Test av 
hjuw:mDen1tI wa toiWi) peinfl-1 Jruw -Sta fa]) :raund, ai waz 
■.wan a Sa Ijuw tjois spirits uw d .-got inta t5a ■{:(]> :raund. 
:wel \ ai waz djest on 8a point av dgoinTg Sam, -when ai 
faund aut Ij d :sed igzjektli 5a seim j^iij ta ■bseblkam ' — ^juw :nou 
bseblkam '— fEensT iSset JEelou :fel6u bseblkam a fif]) raunda ' — 
a :feI6u iiw raits poultri \ an pabllpz it at Iz oun Ikspena ' ! 

:nau kren jfi tel mTj ;whDt 'iz sou|alizm; ai kaaq -get 
eniwan ta tel ml. Sa peipaz a ful av It; bat nan a Sani tel 
jfl ;whot It iz ' — ai doura b!-ijv -Sei :nou Samselvz. samtainiz 
-Sei tel jO it s in Si Ea ; -Sast :daz nt help mij :niat/. an Sen 
-Sei tel jii -wiar -dI Boujalists. ai -juws ta :))ir)k it waz a lot 
av ;fel6ui wontiij ta -hiev evri])Ir} in koman bi:koz -Sei hsevnt 
-got eni])ir) Samselvz. :SEet s ■komjunizm * — 'kwait a difrant 
Jiir). wel -Sen ', :whot -iz soujalizm ' ? soujalizm ' — whai ', 
It s ■soujalizm ' — ai dount IgzKklli :nou 'hau ta difain it ' — 
it s a :]3iij jii mas ■fij! ; :if jii hjev nt Sa sou/alist instltjkt, it s 
nou gud. jes \ bat 'ai m sou/al I:naf' : ai heit ta bij aJoun 
:ijvn fa faiv minits ; ai ijvn tok ta Sa masn Sat kats mai hia *— 
bat ai dour) kansida mai-self a soujalist '. ai :sed 'soujallst 
' nstirikt, not soujal :instlr)kt '. wel \ :whot s Sa difrans ; Siet s 
pWhSt ai wont la nou. difrans ' — :whai evri ;difr3ns in Sa 

skeitli). g( 

*33ld : Ss z 3Z matj" difrsns bi:twijn soujal an soujalist az Bar 
iz bl:twijn -egoulst an -egoufist. ;ou ai *sij : ju mijn Sat 3 
souJalTst s an egfiutlst itaand insaid aut ^—s :sat av tn-vaaUd 
egoufist. jes\ Bffit defi-nijan at :duw az wel az rent aSa. bat 
luk hia \ juw d :beta teik Sa kwlnlesns n Sa prima '— ai |aant 
;wont Sam bsek bTfaa krismas '—an rijd ?5am ; t5en jiiw 1 :nou 
whot soujallzm :iz. ai ikspekt bai Sa taiiti ai :briij Sam bsek 
jiiw 1 av aufgroun ;souJ'aHzm, an jgsn on ta ■komjunizm \ 6 
■naillizm \ an ;5en waakt jo :wei b^ek ta TEeijk kan;saavatjzm. 
:if ai m kanvinst a Sa lodglkl risesltl av -satj a step, ai Jal 
saantnll leik it ; mai soul obdjtkt iz "IrawJ;, Saz 'wan :giid 
:])ir| a;baut juw : jiiw 1 neva rgrou ould ', bi;koz jiiw 1 ahviz 
-hfev sam njuw fasd ' — sam :njuw 'hobJ ta :raid ; jiiw 1 bt laik ■ 
-Sset feloii In -/en jii wa takii) a:baut laas nait * — a juw]) 
hari hta. 





:Sisiz Sa -kouldlst ;dei wlj v hsed ^s winta : -twelv dligrijz 
av frast Sis ;manii). d ;juw :mijn iwelv di:grijz bI;lou 'ziarouf 
'■nou, twelv di:grijz Milou 'frijzlqpoint * — twentl faerlnhait * — 
twenti dl:grijz *a'bav :ziar6u. :ou, ai fagol ; ai v ;livd sou 
toq abrad Sat ai fagot :al abaut rfserTnhait. ai dount wanda 
jii :got kanijuwzd. ai wij" faerinhail war aboK/i ; ■sentigreid z i 
Si ounR rse/anal skeil ' — al saianftifjk :nien juwz it. :wel \ I 
Sar 3 gud -meni -aSa ri:famz Sat 1 hrev ta -kam faast *— I 
deslmal koinldj *, :weit8 n mejaz \ speliijrifam \ an lots av 
aSaz. Juali ju douij g5u in fa -Saet pesttlant herisi ■spelirj- 
rlfam? :wbai It. s simpH weu^ aut Sa houl histrl i 
:sei It :diUii 

92 skeitTij. ^M 

speliqrlfam ju kaant -aev eni fllobrfsT atal. wel, prjeps -ISta 
rait ; ^ai :douij kta imatf abaut It ' ; ai v 3a konsa;leiJ'3n av 
noiilr) It wouDt -kam in "mai :taim. Sa best aagjamant ai 
eva ha^d a:genst spelirinfam waz :whot -paipa :sed laas nait : 
hij :sed If ;pijpl wans bT;gin wlS aboHJii] Sa preznt ;sisllm av 
spelii], Sa neksi [ilq 1 Ibij -Sei 1 :wont tii aibollj Sa :haus av 
*bdz. sou ai ;sed a gud ]jii) tuw If -Sei 'did *, whlil ;aijmd la 
Jok im greitll. 

d juw skeit ? jes ', a litl ' ; d juw f 'jea : ai m :raaSa fond 
av It ', :when ai kan :get gud ais '. ai saipouz tSa z a *gudijl 
av ;skeiili] ;gouz on a:baut hia^? jesS -Sei :akeit on Sa 
medouz ; JSar a dgenrall 'fladz laafta krismas. |a wT :gou an 
-bffiv a luk at It f 'jes ; an :if tSI ais Iz gud, wlj kg kam biek 
far aua skeits. 

iz "it faa ? ounH aibaut a :mail n a haaf '. ai kan hia Sa 
jiTJb} a Sa skeits 6n Sfi ais; ai laik ta :hia -Saet :saund; it 
rlmaindz mlj av :when ai waz a boi. ai :neva ''ktad -matj fa 
skeitiq :when ai waz a boi ' ; ai :laikt 'slaidir) :beta ; ai jaws 
ta kan:sida skeititj a prltenjas an Eerigta;krEetlk paisjuwt ', al 
-veri wel fa .-groim ap ;pijpl, bat not Sa piij fa -boiz. jes ', ai 
rlmemba jo iteikig mij :aut far a slaid on a pond wT5 reillr|z 
n^und It', :when wlj war al steilrj at joa hiaus -Ski haad 
■winta. :ai waz eit, an juw war a;baut ten ', ai sa:pouz. and 
ai rl;membar ai jjat jii a veri :fain felou \ gouii) ;daun a -Jjaati 
6 -fatl '.fiit slaid ', fol6ud bai a mislleinjas r^bl av skuwiboiz, 
butjaboiz, potboiz, and eranboiz av ol -sals', wlS an 
arkeiganal pajijsman 6 souldsa ; it saatnli kud nt bl :kal(J an 
ari3la;krffitik aimjuwzmant. ai rt:memba wTj -hted Sa mis- 
fatjan ta trip -ap a butjaboi' — abiglaut av a:baut -siks'tijn' — 
o iraaSar ai bllijv -juw did It 6n paapas; and ij "wei-Ieid as 
oA aua iwei houm, an krsenid a :lot av -snou idaun aua neks. 
I &et butjaboi waz a :regjala -bpEd n ; d juw :nou -whot bikeim 

skeitir). 93 J 

3V tm? nou\ whot'? hij :went aut tfl amerika, an waz 
hseijd fa hosstijlTij. 

whof 3 -kraud ! an Ink au -Sei v kat :ap 5i ais 1 ai dourj 
:kal -Sajt skeillq : It s :m33 bik stxgarii] -ouvar a plaud 
fij'ld. tuw -men! boiz :tuw ; ai dount laik boiz on Si aia ; 
-Sear alwiz getli) bhtwijn jo legz an jjrouirj ju daun ; ai laik 
■ieidiz beta*— -Sea kwaiata. wel, tSar a :gud -merf leidlz 
*tuw ; Sea z :misiz 'neigl. whta » ? dount j'Q ;sij -Sst staut 
:fijmeil Tn Sa t/ta ? :whot, wl SSset :j'ai) felou puprj It bihaind ? 
jea; fainlukfi) wuman, iz nt p^P jes*, bat :raaSa kos'; ai 
pr'(:faa :sam]flr| a litl :mar Ijjriarial ; huw z Sa :}ar[ ;fel6u Sat s 
■ propelii) -aa * ? :t!Eet s jaij -lasm ; hij 2 :wan a Sa maastaz in 

kobils skuwi. Sta z kobTt tmself * Stet Wnevalanlluklij 

psetriaak wakiij on 5a bfeijk ;bai tSouz wilouz. rSta z Tieigl 
:mw ' — dgest :ha;vTq jz ■skeils ;put on. Tz Sset Sa msn Sat 
•bsedja :sez Inks laik a kombI:neiJan av -aat/ 'bijap, -batla, an 
■mauntibEeijk ? ai rneva haad -SEBt, bat ai kan kwait ifs^sl - 
bsedga seiir) it; Sa saatnlt iz a :grein av tmwji in it ', S6u av 
kos it s grous igziedsa-reijan ; bat ai m Juar It s :ounli Iz 
mffina ' — ai :mijn -neigl av :kas : Sa z naj^irj a Sa -maunti- 
bKijk a:bant neigl ; hij z a ])arali gud felou ' — az gud a felou 
az eva brijSd ', and a 'kleva :fel6u :tuw. bat ai :J>at -Sei kald 
Im pra:fes3 -hambag. iSset -keim a:baut in Sis -wei. :when 
meigl faast -keim :ouva tii iijgland, hij :juws ta glv mjuwzlk- 
lesns at eitljnpens an aua * — hij waz :raaSa .-haad ap, -pua 
:felou. az ij waz a 'forlna, :evrlbodl :J)at Ij mas bij a -dgaaman \ 
bi:koz Sa dsaamanz a -satj a 'mjawzik] :pijpl ; and az ij :wa 
spekllklz, -Sei .-sed ij mas bIj a praTesa ', an isou -Sei tiik ta 
kaliq Im pra-fesa. wan dei a :litl gaal aast Im whot Tj waz 
pra'fesar ov. s6u ij :sed prarfesar av hambag * — hombog ', 
az hij pranaunst it. S;et s au Tj got Sa nikneim av ijw.fe^s- 
hambag. hij :tuk it kwait ^d"Cift\\\:aSv\, atii -Sj!-^ &i5smSi'''i». 

94 skeitli). 

Ss ijaaf s-genst Imself. ;aafl3 rtSset tj bi-keim :veri popjals' 
til at laast Ij got Sa maastapp av modan Iserjgwidglz In kobils 
skuwl. "iz !j 9 dsaaman? *iiou, ij ■spijks dsaaman laik 
a neitiv, bat Sa "dgaamanz :sei ij spijks it wlS a forin :£eksent. 
hij ispijka -rajan :tuw kwait fluantli; bat Sa -rajanz :sei Ij 
:spijks it wiS 9 :alait -djaaman :seksint. hij :spijks -poulij 
:tuw' — sou olla-getSa -wan daz nt ig:z£ektli :nou whot ta 
imeik av im. "ai birlijv ij z av a poulij 'djuw :fa2niil( :setld in 
Sa boltik provinsiz av raja. 

Sset boi skeits :raat5a wel : hij z -Kktluoli ;duwiij a f)rij 
bsekwadzl ai neva ;s3 a boi :duw 'Sset bi:foa. hij z not 
iduwiq it :kwait 'klijn Sou ; hij 'skreips. Star iJ z daun I ai 
'']>ol s6u. abzaav Sa digniti wiS LwhiiJ" ij raiziz S an brajiz 
Sa nijz av Iz trauzaz \ an ;hau tendali ij smuwSz iz pot hjet. 

:SEBt s :wan ov kobits :boiz : -Star ol laik SiEt ^ (Sei ol -Eev 

tSa masnaz av groun -ap :nien a 6a waald. iz jSki Sa i1:za!t 
a Sa treinii) -Sei -get in 5a skuwl ? saatnli ; Sa iprinsapl -Sei 
gou on :iz Sat tSa :biznis av edgu'kei/an :iz ta pripta iboiz fa 
Sa :wa3k av laif '^til injua Sam saksesfl kariaz, az kobit an 
neigl :sei, Si ouldfEeJond dgon bul aidial av onist rafnis an 
masnli streitfowadnis wount :duw nauadeiz t di'ploumasi an 
vaasa;tilitl z whot s wontid ; giv a :boi Sa itreinii) av a polijt 
diploumatist, an ij z -Jua ta -get on in Ba :waald. sou -Sei 
:duw evrifiiq -Sei ksen ta giv Sa :boiz "dsentlmanli an "poiijt 
mtenaz. -Sei v leit dina ^ an Sa biga :boiz ar iks:pektid ta 
■dres fa idina. -Sei :giv praiziz ta Sa :boiz Sat dres ;best\aii 
-hsev Sa best mtenaz. Sa boiz -lev a veri :gud -taim av it : 
lema'ueid an "keik hEndId raund djOarirj lesns, in :fsekt Sa 
:jai| raasklz -get sou pfempad -Sei doui) 'kta ta :gou houm : 
-Sei :taan -ap -Sta nouziz at plein djoints an rais pudiijz. 
wan :boi tektliiali rcen a-wei fram houm brek ta skuwl in Sa 
:midl a Sa krismas holidi?\ bi:koz iz maSa :geiv im a irijkl 


skeitlg. 95 J 

mqra!3ina; Mj ;sed It -meid iz biad ;boil. ai houp -Sei 
dount nlglekt tSa -moral treimq a Sa boiz'. ou ;nou\-kobh 
sija ta ISset : hij z alwlz impresiq 6n Sam Sa nisesTtl av kaltlveitlq 
a hai moral slaendad ', an pasjuwli] tSa haiTst e))Ikl aidialz * — 
fst iz, az faar az Iz kanststant wtS getiri on In l^if. 

Sfaa :misiz -neigl argen ', an rjai) 'who d ju ;sei Iz neim Iz' ? - 
liem'— dadRplsen-lEedglnIt Isem. hlj rluka az '.ifij d-hEdinafav 
il. jea ', h5j z not -veri fond av :mlslz neigl ; It S 'anjgreilfi 6v Im 
^u ' ; fa Jij :got Im tSa pleis. jes ', bsedsa ;sez Jij bousts av It 
oupnli a;maij -aa frendz * — Jij gouz abaut seilr) ' Item z 'mat 
boi '.' not -vert pleznt fa "him. nou ', ij daz nt laik It atal ; hij 
:sez fijmeil influans Iz Sa fainlst p^ In Ba waald ;when It s 
eksasaizd In Its Udgitlmlt sfia ' — :?Eet :iz, In faemill laif; bat 
8d z na]jli) :mao mistjivas San 'andahEend fijmeil inflflana in 
))iijz -Bei n6u rnajjii] abaut. 'hEeg ji sou :mat| infliians In Sa 
:skuwl ? jes \ Jlj z got neigl kamplijtil :andar -aa J)am ', an 
kobit luw. -haa -greit aidia(r) :iz Sat al Sa maastaz Jad :bij av 
dgentl blad', az :Jii kalz It. lig p sou veri Berista-krsetlk aaself 
-Sen ? pj :saatnll "Jjiijks Jij :iz ; hsev nt jfi ;ha3d -aa tak av 
:mai graandaijkl ;s3a ritjad t nou \ ai neva -hfed Sa :ple5ar 
av mijtir) -aa ; -huw waz Sis -saa ritjad ' ? hIj waz lad mtar 
av landan', 6 samjjit) In Sa 'sitl ai blilijv, juw dount :sijm ta 
laik -aa :maij 'j6self. nou ', ai dount; Jij -asz a veil ibsed 
infliians on neigl an kobIt ', an Sa kaunsl dsenraJI ; It waz al 
Jjrfiw haa Sat pua bcedgaz apoinlmant waz kaensld at Sa laaa 
moumint. jes \ baedga :tould mlj al abaut It. blj -sed Sat 
when Si afEa waz selld, neigl :keim ap tii Im wiS a Jjljseirlkal 
la, an :sed ' bij :noI dlshaalnd ', mai frend ; 'ai av -dan evrljjlq 
ai kud :fa jQ ; bat Sa godz Samselvz fait In vein a-genst sedvaas 
destinl.' :bsed33 aaftawadz :haad fram a masn on Sa kaunsl 
Sat neigl s6u fta "m, a'pouzd Iz apoinimant \ and 

wand S '^ dsouk woz Sat fcraaiisi, 



96 skeitlg. - 

W3Z sou Juar a SSa :pleis Sat Tj bt a dres kout n a pot hst 
an haafsdazn whait taiz ' — an nau -Ses nou -juws tii Im, Ij 
;9ez. hlj at tu sv sent :in Sa bil ta :mislz neigl. si tdEMei Ij 
wud \ :ounD Jj Jpot 'neigl waz at Sa botam av It ; hlj :sez It S 
:ol hambag absut Iz ;bij!r| -anda mislz Tneiglz J^am ; hlj :sez 
It s 3 mia 'dodg av neiglz ta Jifl So riaponsa-billti :on ta :sam- 
wan els. hlj tould m] a-natSa kjuarlas -.yii). It :3ijmz -Sei 
;wans ikspeld a :boi ' — . -Sei -nevsr Ikspel ;boiz : -Bei -get 
rid a Sam kwaiatl!. wel \ :when -Bei -got 'rid av a :boi 
kwaiatli a iitl whail agou ' — ai J'igk It waz biikos Ij wud nt 
WEar a pot hset' — Sa boi sed Bat neigl waz ofl-i kaind tii im 
sam wijks blfsa -Bei rout tii iz faaSar aibaut It : hlj juws ta 
giv Im ■tj'okalitkrijmz \ :Bou bifaa ;SEet Ij neva :tuk eni patikjala 
■noutis ov Im ^ — by ijvn :juws ta wak abaut Ba pleigraund wIB 
Iz aamz :rauDd Sa boiz nek. Sa :mous kjuarias ]?Iij :wqz Sat 
Sis boi sed Sat -sam a Bl oulda :boiz, :when -Bei sa Sis, -Bei 
laaft ', an tould im ta luk aut fa 'skwalz : -Bei :sed Sat bitar 
Ikspiarlans ad tat Sam ta dJs'trast neiglz frenjlp. :ai Jad 
advaig jii not ta :pei ^a smallst ateiijan tii :emj)ii] bjedga ;sez 
a:baut neigl : hlj z olwiz sniarir) -Et im ', an :meikir| 
Insinjii'eijanz aigenst im. Ba ifekt :iz, bsedgaz nsetjarall an 
ilkandijand kjen-tsegkaras felou \ an )jrflw wont av tsekt an 
koman sens iz karia z bijn :raa6ar a feilja on Sa :houI ', and 
av :ka3 iBfet s :meid Im waas \ blsaidz -hEviij Sis paasnl gradg 
a:genst neigl ', whltj "ai bllijv z al ImEedgrneiJan. ai mas 
kanfes ai :raaBa 'simpajjalz wiS ibtedga ; and ij sijmz ta :mij a 
veri :gud felou ' — :J)aralI onlst an streit-fawad. :ou, Ij z "onlst 
i:naf : hlj z :raaSa *tuw :onIst' — hlj z alwlz taklri abaut onlstl^, 
az :if hij wa Si ounll :onlst msen In Sa waald. a:kadiij ta him, 
evri :mEen iiw :geta on In Ba iwaald bai tKkt an koman sens 
an not tredlg on Ba touz av men In paua z fiarall dizonist ' — 
BEet s Iz feivarlt freiz. djest az -jaa :feivrlt freiz iz farall :gud 

skeitTg. 9; 

fd&a: 9:k3dii) tdjuw, 'evdwanz 9 ^rM !gud fel6u ^ — m tttetl 
ju gou 9n tel mij 9 :lot 9 ]>ii)z 9b9Ut tfotti to /mi 8nt (ft^t- 
l^izaektli Si op9z!t. 

-hal'lou, :'S£9 z 9na'S9 :8kuwl :kamlr| 6n t!f1 al» ^^-pleltl) 'hukl 
taw; 9i wand9 -"Sei 9lau -Sset. kobltM ',\K3k d igouliy df ihftU : 
S9 hoki z tuw -mat/ f9 t$9m ; bl:iifti(1z -tUcl v igot id dres h 
din9. 9i :]>ir)k *wij d :bet9 :gou on :(luw ffp i^elftii ^1 i|^;^i jtl 
•nev9 drest f9 din9. 9i put :on » klljfi kob *, tKtet « 'ttitti Jiiitib 
9V dresTi} f9 dins. 





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